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CBE 417 “Unit Operations”. Instructor: David J. Dixon Chemical and Biological Engineering Department South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Fall 2012. Overview. Introduction UO course overview Equilibrium Stage separations What are “Unit Operations”. Overview. Introduction

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slide1

CBE 417

“Unit Operations”

Instructor: David J. Dixon

Chemical and Biological Engineering Department

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Fall 2012

slide2

Overview

  • Introduction
  • UO course overview
  • Equilibrium Stage separations
  • What are “Unit Operations”
slide3

Overview

  • Introduction
    • Fulbright experience
    • ACHEMA June 2012
slide6

Overview

  • Introduction
  • UO course overview
  • Equilibrium Stage separations
  • What are “Unit Operations”
slide8

Course Overview

http://webpages.sdsmt.edu/~ddixon/

slide9

Overview

  • Introduction
  • UO course overview
  • Equilibrium Stage separations
  • What are “Unit Operations”

Why are separations important in an industrial facility?

Feedstocks are generally mixtures that are not particularly useful…so industrial facility (plant) is used to “add value” to the raw materials:

Example: (average USA prices on 28 Aug 2012)

Crude oil ~$96/bbl (0.60 $/liter; 0.48 euro/liter)

gasoline ~$3.78/gal (1.00 $/liter; 0.80 euro/liter)

Example: (average USA prices on 5 April 2010)

Crude oil ~$86/bbl (0.54 $/liter; 0.40 euro/liter)

gasoline ~$3.25/gal (0.86 $/liter; 0.64 euro/liter)

slide10

Typical Refinery Products

  • Seader & Henley (2006)
slide11

Industrial Chemical Facility

Typical chemical facility might have 40 – 90% of costs invested in separations.

slide13

Equilibrium Stage Separations

We could also consider some examples that are non-equilibrium systems; such as membrane and adsorption processes.

slide14

Technological Maturity

  • Seader & Henley (2006)
slide15

Separations as Unit Operations

Figure 1.15 and Table 1.13

  • Seader & Henley (2006; 2011)
slide16

Unit Operation

What is a “Unit Operation”?

  • while the chemicals being separated might be different, the specific technique used has generally the same design methods
    • i.e. a distillation column separating ethanol from water is designed in the same general manner as a distillation column separating toluene from xylene.
    • Examples of techniques generally called unit operations include:
      • Distillation
      • Absorption
      • Liquid-liquid extraction
      • Heat exchanger
      • Etc…
slide17

Choosing a Unit Operation

How does one choose a UO? i.e. ethanol from water separation

  • Distillation
  • Adsorption
  • Crystallization
  • L-L extraction
  • Pervaporation
  • Absorption
  • Seader & Henley (2006)
slide18

Separations as Unit Operations

  • Seader & Henley (2006)
slide25

Today’s Process Engineering

  • Today, most of major unit operations are built into a process simulator and used extensively within the industry. For example:
  • Simulators: AspenPlus, Fluent, Comsol, ChemSep, others.
slide26

Overview

  • Introduction
  • UO course overview
  • Equilibrium Stage separations
  • What are “Unit Operations”
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