Vascular Plants

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Moving to Land. Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environmentsWhat are some problems to overcome?Material transportStructure/supportDesiccationGas exchange. Benefits to moving to land. easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis, conti

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Vascular Plants

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1. Vascular Plants

2. Moving to Land Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments What are some problems to overcome? Material transport Structure/support Desiccation Gas exchange

3. Benefits to moving to land easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis, continuous free movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen

4. Vascular Plant Organs

5. Vascular Plant Organs Roots – Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil Anchor plants – in the soil and prevent them from being knocked down by wind Storage – site for food storage

6. Vascular Plant Organs Stems – Support - hold leaves up towards the sun for optimal exposure for photosynthesis Transport – between roots and leaves (via vascular tissue, phloem and xylem Storage – site for food storage

7. Vascular Plant Organ Leaves – Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration Formulas???? Modified to reduce transpiration Cuticle and pores

8. Vascular Tissues http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/vascular/vascular.html

9. Vascular Plant Tissues XYLEM– Carries water and dissolved nutrients from the soil, from the roots, into the stem and into the leaves. It forms a continuous set of tubes that stretch from the roots to the leaves

10. Vascular Plant Tissue PHLOEM– Distributes food made in the leaves throughout the plant. The glucose produced by photosynthesis in the leaves, moves down towards the roots.

11. Questions The direction of glucose transport can be reversed in situations when the glucose levels in the roots are greater than in the leaves. In which situations might this occur?

12. Vascular Tissues

13. Vascular Plants 10 phyla Includes:1) seedless vascular plants (ie. ferns) 2) plants with unprotected seeds (ie. Cone-bearing plants) 3) flowering plants

14. Similarities with mosses 1) free-living gametophyte 2) no seeds 3) mobile sperm that require water for fertilization

15. Differences from mosses 1) a vascular system which transports water, nutrients and photosynthetic products around the plant, 2) sporophytes as the dominant life stage 3) stomata

16. Fern Most diverse group of plants Most abundant after flowering plants Alternation of generation between gametophyte (haploid) and sporophyte (diploid)

17. Fern Life Cycle http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch15/fern_life_cycle_v2.html Takes notes from fig 10.7

18. Fern Life Cycle -gametophyte (n) makes gametes sperm (n) and egg (n) -gametes fuse when mature, fertilization -zygote (2n) develops attached to gametophyte (n) -zygote becomes spore-bearing sporophytes (2n) -spores (n) disperse and develop into gametophytes(n)

19. Fern Sporophyte

20. Fern Gametophyte

22. Video of sporagnium releasing spores

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