Moving to Land. Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environmentsWhat are some problems to overcome?Material transportStructure/supportDesiccationGas exchange. Benefits to moving to land. easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis, conti
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1. Vascular Plants
2. Moving to Land Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments
What are some problems to overcome?
3. Benefits to moving to land
easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis,
continuous free movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen
4. Vascular Plant Organs
5. Vascular Plant Organs Roots – Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil
Anchor plants – in the soil and prevent them from being knocked down by wind
Storage – site for food storage
6. Vascular Plant Organs Stems – Support - hold leaves up towards the sun for optimal exposure for photosynthesis
Transport – between roots and leaves (via vascular tissue, phloem and xylem
Storage – site for food storage
7. Vascular Plant Organ Leaves – Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration
Modified to reduce transpiration
Cuticle and pores
8. Vascular Tissues http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/vascular/vascular.html
9. Vascular Plant Tissues XYLEM– Carries water and dissolved nutrients from the soil, from the roots, into the stem and into the leaves.
It forms a continuous set of tubes that stretch from the roots to the leaves
10. Vascular Plant Tissue PHLOEM– Distributes food made in the leaves throughout the plant.
The glucose produced by photosynthesis in the leaves, moves down towards the roots.
11. Questions The direction of glucose transport can be reversed in situations when the glucose levels in the roots are greater than in the leaves.
In which situations might this occur?
12. Vascular Tissues
13. Vascular Plants 10 phyla
Includes:1) seedless vascular plants (ie. ferns)
2) plants with unprotected seeds
(ie. Cone-bearing plants) 3) flowering plants
14. Similarities with mosses 1) free-living gametophyte
2) no seeds
3) mobile sperm that require water for fertilization
15. Differences from mosses 1) a vascular system which transports water, nutrients and photosynthetic products around the plant,
2) sporophytes as the dominant life stage
16. Fern Most diverse group of plants
Most abundant after flowering plants
Alternation of generation between gametophyte (haploid) and sporophyte (diploid)
17. Fern Life Cycle http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch15/fern_life_cycle_v2.html
Takes notes from fig 10.7
18. Fern Life Cycle -gametophyte (n) makes gametes sperm (n) and egg (n)
-gametes fuse when mature, fertilization
-zygote (2n) develops attached to gametophyte (n)
-zygote becomes spore-bearing sporophytes (2n)
-spores (n) disperse and develop into gametophytes(n)
19. Fern Sporophyte
20. Fern Gametophyte
22. Video of sporagnium releasing spores