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NETWORKING AS A COMPONENT OF URBAN MANAGEMENT. Prepared by: Martin L.D. Kitilla National Environmental Planning and Management Expert SUSTAINABLE CITIES PROGRAMME TANZANIA Urban Authorities Support Unit (UASU) President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government.

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NETWORKING AS A COMPONENT OF URBAN MANAGEMENT

Prepared by:

Martin L.D. Kitilla

National Environmental Planning and Management Expert

SUSTAINABLE CITIES PROGRAMME TANZANIA

Urban Authorities Support Unit (UASU)

President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government


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1.0 INTRODUCTION

  • Urban Management is a complex process combining political, social, economic, natural and physical aspects of urban growth and development

  • Urban management is responsible for setting up and monitoring of systems of coordination and direction

  • Until recently, urban management has been top-down with limited involvement of the general public hence missing many opportunities such as the contribution of different stakeholders in terms of resources, expertise and service delivery

  • Attempts are now being made to involve various stakeholders through public participation and networking


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2.0 NETWORKING

2.1 Definition:

  • Networking is the process of developing and nurturing a network of contacts which are systematically connected in order to maximize opportunities for oneself and others.

  • A Network consists of two or more “contact” that are linked in order to share resources, exchange information, experience, ideas and skills


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2.1 Definition (Contd.)

  • Is networking synonymous to coordination, collaboration, cooperation and communication?

    • Coordinate: bring together and cause to work together efficiently

    • Collaborate: work together on something

    • Cooperate: work or act together or manage collectively

    • Communicate: share and be able to exchange information, ideas, or feelings

  • Thus coordination, collaboration, cooperation and communication, which are basic tenements of urban management can be enhanced through Networking


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2.2 Actors involved in Networking

  • Successful urban management requires involvement of many actors from within or outside an urban centre

  • Actors in the urban management setting can be identified as:

    • Central government ministries

    • Other public institutions (Agencies, Programmes, etc.)

    • Local authorities

    • private sector

    • Civil societies

    • communities

    • Institutions of higher learning

    • Producers and suppliers of goods and services essential for urban development

    • Donor community

    • Other cities within and outside a country


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Actors involved in Networking (Contd.)

Networks can be formed around:

  • Institutions of similar functions (e.g. association of local authorities)

  • Professional associations (e.g. Association of Town Planners, Association of Consulting Engineers)

  • Programmes/projects furthering same principles and objectives (e.g. country Sustainable Cities Programmes under the Global Sustainable Cities Programme)

  • Social and cultural (i.e. Association of Music Bands)

  • Sports associations (FAT, FIFA)

  • Economic groupings (SADC, ECOWAS)

  • Association of scholars who studied in the same institution (e.g. Alumnae and Alumni

  • Cooperating Learning institutions like Global Distance Learning Centres


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Private Sector

Central &

Sector

Ministries

Figure 1: NETWORKING BETWEEN AN URBAN LOCAL AUTHORITY AND ITS DIFFERENT ACTORS

Civil Society

Institution of

Higher Learning

Urban Centre

Communities

International

Collaborating

Institutions

Service

Providers

Donor

Agencies

Other public

Institutions

(Agencies)

Other Cities


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2.3 Why do we need a network?

  • Urban centres can no longer work in isolation due to:

    • dwindling of resources

    • democratization process

    • technological changes

  • Have to work with others to take advantage of wide range of available human and financial resources from various actors

    A well established network has the following advantages:

    • Improved performance

      • Sharing good practices and experiences

      • Seeking help or advice

      • Researching information


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Network Advantages (Contd.)

  • Creating mutual trust and hence enhancing good relationship among the actors.

  • Improved service delivery

    • Sourcing products and/or services

    • Promoting products and/or services

    • Raising profile (internally and externally)

  • Conflict Management

    • Minimizing conflicts among actors

    • Overcoming isolation


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    2.4 Pre-requisites for Networking

    • Capacities both in humanware and facilities

    • Resources to support networking and urban management and growth

    • Well-defined roles among the networking actors (principle of subsidiarity)

    • A well established Information and Communication Technology (ICT) centre where there is free flow of data (easily accessed, retrieved and used)

    • Continuous attempt to encourage institutional development (formal and informal).


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    2.5 Roles and Respective Networks of the Actors

    1. Communities

    Roles

    • Implementation of of development projects

    • pooling of resources, expertise and experience

    • influence and sharing of successful community management approaches

      2. Central government ministries

      Roles

    • Formulate a national policy and regulatory framework for local government system

    • Coordinate and monitor the performance of local government authorities for compliance with national policies, guidelines and standards

    • Provide necessary technical support or assistance to the local authorities


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    3. President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government

    Roles

    • Coordination of the implementation of sector policies at Regional and Local Government levels

    • Coordination and support of management systems and capacity building for the Regional Secretariats and Local Governments

    • Monitoring and evaluation of programmes, projects and other functions of the Ministry at all levels

    • Putting in place and ensuring the coherent of the legal framework for Regional and Local Government Development Administration


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    • Performance assessment of activities of Regional Secretariats and Local Government Authorities

    • Spearheading the implementation of Local Government Reforms and ensuring that they are sustained in the future.

      4. Local Authorities

      Roles

    • Maintain and facilitate maintenance of peace, order and good governance

    • Promote the social welfare and economic well- being of its citizens

    • Promote local development through participatory processes


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    Networks

    • Internal - Association of Local Authorities of Tanzania (ALAT)

    • International:

      • African Union of Local Authorities (AULA)

      • International Union of Local Authorities (IULA)

      • Urban and Towns Organization (UTO)

      • IULA and UTO have merged to form International Cities and Local Authorities Union

    • Local Authorities have also been networking with donors (i.e. World Bank, UNDP) and UN Agencies (UN Habitat, WHO, UNICEF, etc.) and development programmes (SCP, MDP-ESA, etc.)


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    5. Civil Society (Include:)

    • Non -governmental Organization (NGO's) both national and international

    • Community-Based Organizations (CBO's)

    • Religious organizations

    • Professional associations

    • Trade unions

    • Cooperatives

    • Voluntary and self-help groups

    • Organizations representing socially excluded groups such as women and people with disabilities

    • Political parties


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    • The media

    •  Legal and human rights groups

    • Research organizations.

      Roles

    • Compliment delivery of services

    • Raising awareness of general public on its civic, political and legal rights

    • Advocating changes on government policies and practice

    • Facilitating community-based development

    • Increasing outreach capacity of the government and donors


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    Networks:

    • In Tanzania networking of Civil Society Organizations is categorized into:

    • Human Rights Organizations [Examples include the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP), Tanzania Women's Lawyer's Association (TAWLA), Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA), etc.]

    • Legal Aid Organizations [Examples: Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC), Women's Legal Aid Centre (WLAC), Tanganyika Law Society (TLS)]. However, to ensure greater coordination among them, the legal and human rights organizations established a Legal Aid and Human Rights Network since 1999.


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    • Democracy and Political Empowerment [Examples: Concern for Development Initiatives in Africa (ForDIA), Political Risk Analysis (PORIS), Tanzania Youth Awareness Trust (TAYOA), Centre for Human Rights Promotion].

    • Church Organizations [ Christian Council of Tanzania (CCT), Tanzania Episcopal Conference (TEC), Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania (ELCT), Tanzania Ecumenical Dialogue Group (TEDG), Christian Professionals of Tanzania (CPT) and the Muslim umbrella organization, BAKWATA]

    • The Media [Tanzania Association of Journalists (TAJA), Association of Journalists and Media Workers (AJM)]

    • Anti-Corruption Organizations [The Front Against Corrupt Elements in Tanzania (FACEIT), the Tanzania Civic Monitor (TACIMO)].


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    6. Private sector

    Roles

    • Undertaking capital development projects

    • service delivery

      Networks

    • The Tanzania Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture (TCCIA)

    • The Confederation of Tanzania Industries (CTI) and

    • Local (regional) Chambers of Commerce.


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    7. Donor Agencies

    Roles

    • provision of funds for development projects

    • Technical assistance

      8. Institutions of Higher Learning

      Roles

    • capacity building mainly through training

    • provision of essential information through researches

      Networks

    • Inter universities Associations (e.g. East African Universities)

    • Institutional Professional Associations (e.g. African Planning Schools Association)


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    Roles and Networks of the Actors (Contd.)

    9. Urban Service Providers (Utility Agencies)

    Roles

    • Provide much needed services for urban growth and development

      10. Other Public Institutions (Agencies)

      Roles

    • Provide specialized (mainly technical) services i.e. Tanroads, etc.

      11. Other cities

      Roles

    • Exchange of experiences and expertise, provision of technical assistance and foster technical and cultural exchange programmes

      Networks

    • Twinning arrangements and through various associations


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    2.6 Factors Influencing Networking

    • Deliberate changes in government policies of devolving more power to the people (e.g. decentralization through various reforms –LGR, CSR, PSR)

    • Donor influences

    • Pressure groups (e.g. LEAT, TGNP, etc.)

    • Globalization


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    2.7Types of Networking

    1. Hierarchical (vertical) network

    • Formalized or institutional linkage structure within and between different institutions and depends on hierarchical organizational set up. Examples:

      • Central ministries in Tanzania

      • Hierarchical administration of political parties from national to ward levels

        2. Hub or Central Node Network

    • In this type the functions as a service to its nodes e.g. how an urban centre networks with its stakeholders



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    Private Sector

    Central &

    Sector

    Ministries

    2. HUB OR CENTRAL NODE NETWORK

    Civil Society

    Institution of

    Higher Learning

    Urban Centre

    Communities

    International

    Collaborating

    Institutions

    Service

    Providers

    Donor

    Agencies

    Other public

    Institutions

    (Agencies)

    Other Cities


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    2.7Types of Networking (Contd.)

    3.0 Autonomous and Non Hierarchical Network

    • There is a free flow and unstructured pattern of communication - the common commitment is the unifying factor


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    2.7Types of Networking (Contd.)

    4. Federation (Horizontal) Network

    • In this type stakeholders involved in similar types of activities elect representatives that form a federation. A good example is the Trade Union Congress of Tanzania (TUCTA) which is a federation of the following workers organizations:

      • Tanzania Union of Industries and Commercial workers (TUICO)

      • Tanzania Mining Workers Organization (TAMICO)

      • Tanzania Sailors Union (TASU)

      • Tanzania Local Government Workers Union (TALGWU)

      • Tanzania Union of Government and Health Employees (TUGHE)


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    2.7Types of Networking (Contd.)

    • Construction and Telecommunication Workers Union (COTWU)

    • Tanzania Planters and Agricultural Workers Union (TPAWU)

    • Tanzania Teachers Union (CWT)

    • Tanzania Union of Conservation and Hotel Workers (CHODAWU)



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    2.8 Media used for Networking (Ways in which actors can interact)

    • Consultative meetings

    • Telecommunication systems (Telephones, faxes, radio calls)

    • Postal Services

    • Study tours

    • Task forces or working groups

    • Internal newsletters (i.e. ALAT Newsletter)

    • Electronic means such as Internet (E-mails, websites, etc.)

      Note: The difference in the usage of information technology between the developing and developed world is so huge to the extent of it being termed as “digital divide”


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    In Tanzania this problem is tackled through the preparationof the National Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Policy whose mission is:

    “to enhance nation-wide economic growth and social progress by encouraging beneficial ICT activities in all sectors through providing a conducive framework for investments in capacity building and in promoting multi-layered co-operation and knowledge sharing

    locally as well as globally"

    Media used for Networking (Ways in which actors can interact) -Contd.


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    2.9 Success Factors for Sustained Networking preparationof the National Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Policy whose mission is:

    • Commitments of all concerned actors

    • Communication of facts, ideas, opinions among the actors helps to build mutual awareness of problems and needs

    • Adequate and reliable finances on the part of urban centres to enhance their capacity to manage and improve urban management

    • Good governance (democracy, participation, etc.)


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    3.0 IMPACTS OF DECENTRALIZATION ONINTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS

    • Decentralization has had varied impacts on intergovernmental relationship in Tanzania

    • Central government has given local authorities greater freedom and authority in service delivery- LA’s can make policies and operational decisions consistent with those of central government

    • Good working relationship and close collaboration in the issue of disbursement and use of funds (block grants, capitation grants)

    • On communication, central government still reverts to its old (top-down) command and directives driven management approach

    • Central government has not been “issuing” funds commensurate with the increased responsibilities of the LA’s pertaining to service delivery


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    4.0 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PORALG AND OTHER MINISTRIES OF GOVERNMENT

    • Ministries of government are divided into two categories:

      • Central ministries (cutting across all other ministries e.g. PMO, PO-Privatization and Planning, Civil Service Management and PORALG and the Treasury)

      • Sector ministries (deal with specific sectors)

    • There is good and close working conditions between PORALG and sector ministries

      • they involve PORALG in preparing their sectoral plans and programmes

      • some have seconded their qualified personnel to PORALG to assist it I technical matters pertaining to the respective sectors


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    5.0 CONCLUSION GOVERNMENT

    • Networking is both a component and a means of urban management

    • It is a component because it has to be there for effective urban management.

    • It is a means to urban management in the sense that urban management can best be achieved through networking.

    • Networking is not an haphazard process - when an urban centre labours out to identify who are the actors (stakeholders), why and how so that all the differing interests are catered for to bring harmony, trust, commitments and above all the required financial and human resources

    • Through networking all the important "ingredients" (coordination collaboration, cooperation and communication) essential for urban management can be realized



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    GROUP WORK GOVERNMENTDISCUSSION

    Reference should be made to the Paper and Case Study

    GROUP NO. 1

    • Define networking.

    • Discuss why networking is needed.

    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of networking?

      GROUP NO. 2

    • Discuss the major factors influencing networking

    • Is the working relationship between the central and local governments satisfactory? If no, please give suggestions as to how such a relationship can be improved and subsequently make networking between them more effective.

      GROUP NO. 3

    • Identify all the relevant networking actors (stakeholders) and indicate how each one contributes to the improvement of urban management.

    • Give examples through which each group of actors network among themselves


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