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计算机文化基础. 信阳师范学院. 第一章计算机基础知识. 1.1计算机概述 1.1.1什么是电子计算机 电子计算机是 用电子技术代替了机械和继电器技术,具有 高速计算,内部存储能力,由程序控制其操作过程的电子设备。. 1.1.2电子计算机的发展. 1.第一台电子计算机的诞生

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1.1

1.1.1


1.1.2

1.

1946214ENIAC ENIAC


ENIAC

  • 170

  • 150KW

  • 5000/1000


2.



1946-1957

  • /


1958-1963

  • //

  • FORTRAN


1964-1971

  • //


1972-

  • //


1.1.3

  • 197124


4819711977

  • Intel4004Intel8008Intel8080Z80M6800

  • 48

  • 1 5MHz

  • 1971IntelMCS4CPUIntel4040Intel 8008MCS-8APPLE-II


19781981

  • Intel8086Intel8088Z8000MC68000

  • 4 10MHz

  • IBM-PCCPU8086

  • APPLEMacintosh

  • IBMPCAT286


19821984

  • Intel8088Intel8086Intel80286

  • 1030MHz

  • IBM-PCCPU8086

    1984APPLEMacintosh IBMPC/XT PC/AT286


32 1985 1989

  • Z80000Intel80386Intel80486 Pentium

  • 32

  • 1060MHz

  • IBM-PC/80386IBM-PC/80486IBM-PC/80586PC


64 1990

  • Pentium(586) Pentium II Pentium III Pentium IV

  • 64

  • 702.4GHz

  • IBM-P III-1.06G Evo D5104800 P4-2.0G P4 PC


  • , .


1.1.4

1.

,Star-100

.


2.

  • 1

    2

    3

    4

    5


3.

  • .


4.


1.1.5

1


2


1.1.6

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6


1.1.7

  • 1

  • .


2

  • MIPS(Million of Instructions Per

  • Second)


3

  • 8(bit)1Byte

  • BKBMBGBTB

  • 1KB=1024B=210B 1MB=1024KB=220B

  • 1GB=1024MB=230B 1TB=1024GB=240B


4

  • CPUCPUCPU Clock Speed

  • Pentium 500733400A(MHz)800MHz2.4GHz


5

  • ,

  • :,.

  • :,.


  • 123


1.2

  • .?

    1

    2


1.2.1

  • :: 123.56

  • : 601

  • :


1

  • 10123456789

  • 2

  • 999.99

  • 9 9 9 . 9 9


  • 9999101991029910-199102

    999.99=910291019100910-1910-2

    102 101 100 10-1 10-2999.99


  • D=Dn-110n-1Dn-210n-2+D1101D0100

  • +D-110-1D-210-2D-m10-m

  • iDii0 9D10n-1 10n-2101 10-1 100 10-110-2 10-m0mnnm Dn-110n-1 n-110


2

  • 101

  • 2

  • 11010.001

  • (11010.001)2=124123+022+121+020+02-1+02-2+12-3


  • B=Bn-12n-1+Bn-22n-2++B121+B020

  • +B-12-1+B-22-2++B-m2-m

  • Bi10Bnmnm2n-1 2n-2 21 2-1 20 2-1 2-2 2-mmnnm 2


3.

  • 116:09ABCDEFP61-1

  • 10 A

  • 15 F

  • 112 1C


216

  • (43D)1641623161D160

    16H

    H=Hn-116n-1+Hn-216n-2++H1161+H0160

    +H-116-1+H-216-2++H-m16-m

    Hi0FHnmnm16n-1 16n-2161 16-1 160 16-116-2 16-mmnnm1616


:

  • 1JJ

  • 2Ji,JiJiJJJJ


1.2.2


1

  • 1

  • 2

  • 28

    ( 28 )D=( 11100 )B


2

  • 2

  • 0.125

  • (101.11)B=(5.75)D


2

  • 1

  • 4

  • 7A8E.6C

  • 7 A 8 E . 6 C

  • 0111 1010 1000 1110 .0110 1101

  • ( 7A8E.6C )H=( 111101010001110.01101101 )D


2

  • 440

  • 11010111.1011

  • 1101 0111 . 1011

  • D 7 . B

  • ( 11010111.1011 )D=( D7.B )H


3

1

  • 16

  • 4586

  • (4586 )D=( 11DA )H


2

  • 16

  • 0.32

  • ( 0.32 )D=( 0.51E )H


3

  • 5EA.11

  • 5EA.11H=5162+14161+10160+116-1+116-2=(1514.0664062)D

  • (5EA.11)H=(1514.0664062)D


1.2.4

  • 1bit

  • 01,bit


2Byte

  • 128256788118


3.Word

  • (Word size)

  • 8II162863238648664PentiumPentium


1.2.5

  • 1ASCII

  • ASCII(American standard code for Information Interchange),

  • ASCII07128

  • ASCII78256


2.

  • 1980-GB2312-8067636827445

  • 270ASCII


1


(2)

  • GB2312-80ASCII1


(3)

  • 1616242432326464969612828256X 256

    16X1632


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