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Local Management of Invasive Breast Cancer. By Steven Jones, MD. Connecting with the patient is the best part of medicine. We ’ re artists, not engineers. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer. 232,340 American women diagnosed each year. 39,620 die each year from the disease

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epidemiology of breast cancer
Epidemiology of Breast Cancer
  • 232,340 American women diagnosed each year.
  • 39,620 die each year from the disease
  • Lifetime risk through age 85 is 1 in 8, or 12.5%
  • 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths among US women, after lung cancer
  • Leading cause of death among women age 40-55
staging recommendation prior to primary therapy
Staging Recommendation prior to primary therapy
  • History and physical
  • Liver function tests
  • Breast imaging: ipsilateral and contralateral breasts
        • Mammogram
        • U/S
        • MRI
  • Axillary imaging
        • U/S
        • MRI
mri for local regional staging
MRI for Local-regional Staging

Pros:

Cons:

With adjuvant therapy local failure low – 6%

Too many mastectomies

Some data demonstrate no difference in local failure rates

  • Changes surgery 20%
  • Multifocal- 3.6%
  • Multicentric – 4.4%
  • Contralateral – 1.8%
mri pre op
MRI Pre-op
  • Diagnostic dilemma
  • BRCA 1 / 2 known or suspected carriers wishing BCT
  • Occult malignancy presenting with axillary mets
slide12
CRITERIA FOR REFERRAL FOR GENETIC COUNSELING OF INDIVIDUALS AT INCREASED RISKFOR BRCA1/2-ASSOCIATED HEREDITARY BREAST CANCERa,b
  • Personal history of breast cancer diagnosed≤ 40
  • Personal history of breast cancer diagnosed≤ 50 and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry
  • Personal history of breast cancer diagnosed≤ 50 and at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer ≤50and/or epithelial ovarian cancer

aClose relatives of individuals with the history mentioned in the table are appropriate candidates for genetic counseling. It is optimal to initiate testing in an individual with breast or ovarian cancer prior to testing at-risk relatives.

bCriteria modified from NCCN (109)

continued
Continued….
  • Personal history of breast cancer and two or more relatives on the same side of the family with breast cancer and/or epithelial ovarian cancer
  • Personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer, diagnosed at any age, particularly if Ashkenazi Jewish
  • Personal history of male breast cancer particularly if at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer and/or epithelial ovarian cancer
  • Relatives of individuals with a deleterious BRCA1/2mutation
evolution of breast cancer
Evolution of Breast Cancer

“Cancer of the breast spreads centrifugally.

It disseminates to bone by way of the lymphatics, not by blood vessels.”

Halsted, WS. The results of radical operations for the cure of carcinoma of the breast. Ann Surg 1907; 66:1

halstedian concept did not apply
Halstedian concept did not apply

More extensive surgical procedures did not reduce risk of distant metastasis

Identification of small breast cancer by mammography

national surgical adjuvant breast project
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project
  • Radical mastectomy

vs

  • Simple mastectomy with axillary irradiation

vs

  • Simple mastectomy with delayed axillary dissection

Started in 1971, 1665 patients enrolled, 25 year follow up

No difference in disease free or overall survival

breast cancer multifocality holland et al
Breast Cancer MultifocalityHolland et al.
  • Only 37% of cancers are confined to the primary tumor.
  • 20% have additional cancer within 2 cms.
  • 43% have additional cancer beyond 2 cms.

Holland R, Veling S, Mravunac M, et al. Histologic multifocality of Tis, T1-2 breast carcinomas: implications for clinical trials of breast-conserving treatment. Cancer 1985; 56: 979

nsabp b 06
NSABP B-06
  • Total mastectomy vs lumpectomy vs lumpectomy plus irradiation
  • No significant difference in survival
  • 14.3% recurrence in lumpectomy plus radiation group at 25 years
  • 39.2% recurrence in lumpectomy without radiation group at 25 years
conclusion nsabp b 06
Conclusion NSABP B-06
  • Lumpectomy followed by breast irradiation is the appropriate therapy for women with breast cancer, provided that the margins of resected specimens are free of tumor and an acceptable cosmetic result can be obtained.
contraindications for breast conserving therapy
Contraindications for Breast Conserving Therapy
  • Absolute:
  • Prior radiation to the breast or chest wall
  • Pregnancy
  • Muticentric disease
  • Diffuse, malignant appearing microcalcifications
relative contraindications for bct
Relative Contraindications for BCT
  • History of collagen vascular disease
  • Very large tumor > 5cms
  • Very large breasts
margins
Margins
  • Clear: tumor not touching the ink
  • Close: < 1mm – may be a problem with young or extensive intraductal component
algorithm for adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer
ALGORITHM FOR ADJUVANT SYSTEMIC THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER

ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor

aFormerly HER-2

radiation therapy
Radiation Therapy
  • Whole breast with boost to tumor bed standard
  • Accelerated partial breast irradiation
    • Balloon ( Mammosite)
    • Interstitial brachytherapy
    • External beam limited RT
    • Intraoperative limited RT
post mastectomy radiation
Post-mastectomy Radiation
  • Early studies showed increased mortality
  • Recent studies show substantial decrease in locoregional recurrence
  • Recent trials show survival benefit 5-8% at > 10 years.
indications for post mastectomy radiation
Indications for Post-mastectomy Radiation
  • T3 or T4 tumors
  • Tumors invading skin or muscle
  • 4 or more pos. axillary nodes
  • (Some recommend for 1-3 nodes, depending)
breast reconstruction
Breast Reconstruction
  • Immediate – skin sparing
  • Delayed immediate – skin sparing
  • Delayed
skin sparing mastectomy
Skin Sparing Mastectomy

Includes areolar (nipple sparing controversial)

Excise biopsy incision

Radiate positive margins

axillary biopsy and control
Axillary Biopsy and Control

1. Staging

  • In the absence of distant mets number of positive lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor.

2. Regional Control

In clinically negative axilla, axillary dissection reduces local occurrence from 20% to 3%

3. Small survival advantage (3-5%)

sentinel lymph node
Sentinel Lymph Node
  • Technetium labeled sulfur colloid
  • Isosulfan blue (lymphazurin 1%)
  • Combined – 97% ID’ed; 6% false negative
  • 1% anaphylactic reaction to blue dye
locally advanced cancer
Locally Advanced Cancer
  • Large primary tumors (>5cm) especially with pos. nodes
  • Tumors with skin or chest wall involvement
  • Tumors with fixed or matted axillary nodes or ipsilateralsubclavian or supraclavicular lymph nodes
  • Most have been present for months or years but treatment has been delayed
inflammatory breast cancer
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
  • Rapid onset and progression over weeks to months
  • Skin often discolored red to purple
  • Skin thickened or peau d’ orange
  • Induration
  • Invasion of dermal lymphatics is a common feature but not required or sufficient for a diagnosis
  • 1-5% of breast cancers
slide33

NeoadjuvantChemotherapy

aka

Preoperative Systemic Therapy

aka

Primary Chemotherapy

nsabp b 18
NSABP B-18
  • Started 1988; 1523 pts, 4 cycles AC
  • 80% overall response
  • 13% pathologic complete response
  • No difference in overall survival
  • Only 3% had progression of disease
  • 25% downstaging at axilla
  • 30% of women will downsize to allow conversion from mastectomy to BCS
indications
Indications
  • To downsize women with large tumors that cannot undergo BCS with good cosmetic result – 30% of women will downsize.
  • Early initiation of systemic treatment
  • In vivo assessment of response, good biological model
  • Less radical surgery needed
pre operative endocrine therapy
Pre-operative Endocrine Therapy
  • Best for large low grade ER pos. tumors in post menopausal women
  • Response times 3 months or longer
  • Greater response with aromatase inhibitors compared with tamoxifen
  • Under-utilized in the US
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