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Anita Sego Spring, 2005. Chapter Objectives. Describe the scope of the occupational safety and health problems in the United States and its importance to the community. Identify some of the pioneers in the prevention of occupational injuries and disease.

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Anita Sego Spring, 2005

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Anita sego spring 2005

Anita Sego

Spring, 2005

Chapter objectives

Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the scope of the occupational safety and health problems in the United States and its importance to the community.

  • Identify some of the pioneers in the prevention of occupational injuries and disease.

  • Provide a short history of state and federal legislation on occupational safety and health.

Chapter objectives1

Chapter Objectives

  • Explain the difference between occupational injuries and occupational diseases and give several examples of each.

  • Discuss the types of injuries that frequently occur in the workplace and describe their occurrence with regards to person, place, and time.

  • Briefly describe broad strategies for preventing injuries in the workplace.

Chapter objectives2

Chapter Objectives

  • Identify the different types of occupational illnesses and disorders and list some of the causative agents.

  • Outline some general strategies for controlling these diseases.

  • List several occupational safety and health professions and describe what the professionals in each of these do.

  • List and briefly describe several occupational safety and health programs for the workplace.



  • Occupational disease

    • an abnormal condition, other than an occupational injury, caused by an exposure to environmental factors associated with employment

  • Occupational injury

    • an injury that results from exposure to a single incident in the work environment

Occupational injuries diseases deaths

Occupational Injuries, Diseases, & Deaths

  • Scope of the Problem

    • estimated cost of $123 billion annually

    • 5.7 million injuries and illness during 1999

    • 9,000 US workers sustain disabling injuries

    • 17 die from work related injuries

    • 137 die from work related diseases

  • Impact is beyond the workplace

History of occupational safety and health problems

History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems

  • 1561 De Re Metallica

  • Industrial Revolution

  • State Legislation

    • workers’ compensation laws

  • Federal Legislation

    • Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970

    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Highlights of federal occupational safety health legislation

Highlights of Federal Occupational Safety & Health Legislation


1908Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act - limited coverage

1916Federal Highway Aid Act

1926Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act- include workers

1927Federal Longshoremen’s &Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act

1936Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act

1952Coal Mine Safety Act

1959Radiation Standards Act

1960Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act

1966National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety Act

Child Protection Act - banned hazardous household substances

1967National Commission on Product Safety created

1968Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act

1969Construction Safety Act

Coal Mine Health & Safety Act

1970Occupational Safety & Health Act

Prevalence of occupational injuries disease and deaths

Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Disease, and Deaths

  • Recent trends

    • Since 1990 decline in number of injuries and illnesses

    • Goods-producing sector highest incidence

    • Workplace injury and illness rates cycle up and down

Unintentional injuries

Unintentional Injuries

  • Fatal Work-related Injuries

    • 17 fatal work-related injuries/day

  • Nonfatal Work-related Injuries

    • 3.6 million occupational injuries and illnesses were treated in emergency rooms in 1996

  • Characteristics of Works

    • Age

      • injuries highest for 18 - 19 year old

      • death rates highest for 65+ year old

    • Gender

    • Poverty and Race

Workplace fatalities 1999

Workplace Fatalities 1999

Unintentional injuries1

Unintentional Injuries

  • Geographic Differences

    • Alaska and Wyoming highest rates

    • Connecticut lowest rate

  • Temporal Variations

    • 81% decline in injuries death between 1912 - 1999

Workplace injuries by industry and occupation

Workplace Injuries by Industry and Occupation

  • Fatal injuries by industry

    • mining

    • agriculture

    • construction

    • transportation

  • Nonfatal occupational injuries

    • goods-producing

    • service-producing

Prevention and control of unintentional injuries in the workplace

Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace

  • Reduction of injuries by:

    • eliminating or modifying the job

    • changing the work environment

    • making machinery safer

    • improving the selection, training, and education of workers

Workplace violence

Workplace Violence

  • Categories

    • Criminal intent

    • Customer/client

    • Worker-on-worker

    • Personal relationship

  • Risk Factors

    • location

    • time

    • type of work

Workplace violence1

Workplace Violence

  • Prevention Strategies

  • Environmental Design

    • separate worker

    • better lighting

    • security system

  • Administrative Controls

    • policies

    • procedures

  • Behavior Strategies

    • training

Occupational illnesses and disorders

Occupational Illnesses and Disorders

  • Musculoskeletal Conditions

    • repeated trauma

  • Skin Disease & Disorders

    • allergic and irritant dermatitis

  • Noise-induced Hearing Loss

  • Respiratory Disorders

    • chronic nature

    • difficulty to recognize

  • Other Work-Related Diseases and Disorders

    • poisoning and infections

    • anxiety, stress, or neurotic disorders

Prevention and control of occupational diseases and disorders

Agent-host-environment model

Identification and evaluation of agents


Engineering controls

Protective devices


Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Disorders




Resources for prevention

Safety & Health Professionals

Safety Engineers and certified safety professional

Health Physicists

Industrial Hygienists

Occupational Physicians

Occupational Health Nurse

Occupational Safety and Health Programs

Disease Prevention Programs

Safety Programs

Health Promotion Programs

Employee Assistance Programs

Resources for Prevention

Anita sego spring 2005

Chapter 18

Safety and Health

in the Workplace

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