Sustainable Manufacturing Manufacturing Systems Analysis Professor: Nour El Kadri e-mail: nelkadri @ site.uottawa.ca. Sustainable Manufacturing. Origins of Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainability Sustainable Manufacturing Concepts & Examples Principles of Sustainability
Origins of Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainability
Sustainable Manufacturing Concepts & Examples
Principles of Sustainability
Principles, Methods & Metrics
Social, Economic & Environmental Themes
Scorecards, Checklists & Criteria
Regulations & Standards
Guide analysis and action:
Principles of Ecological Design
Design for Disassembly
Waste Reduction (Affects the Biosphere and Business)
Cradle to Cradle
Management of Natural Resources in the Biosphere and in Commerce (Managing Impact while Balancing Interests and Values)
5 Capitals Model
Triple Bottom Line
Environmental Health & Safety
SCP - Sustainable Packaging
Wal-mart - Sustainable Packaging
SPA – Sustainable Packaging
Sustainable Biomaterials Collaborative – Sustainable Packaging
Source: Edwards, A. R. The sustainability revolution. New Society Publishers. 2002
“Remind the public that the original purpose behind the creation of corporations was to serve the public interest
Seek stricter enforcement of labor laws and advocate for new laws to guarantee working people their right to form organizing.
Make workplaces, communities and the planet safer by reducing waste and greenhouse gas emissions.
Demand that global trade agreements include enforceable labor and environmental standards.
Promote forward-thinking business models that allow for sustainability over the long term while protecting working people, communities, and the environment.”
In Cradle to Cradle, McDonough and Braungart (2002) note that a regenerative environment, like a cherry tree, is sustainable.
It is a closed loop where Waste (of the system)=(the same system’s) Food.
A manufacturing system can function under those same ideals.
This concept stresses eco-effectiveness, quality prior to quantity, and biological and technical resource cycles which recycle in a manner that instead of “downcycling” the quality of materials, upcycles or regenerates.
“The goal is a delightfully diverse safe and just world with clean air soil power and water economically, equitably, ecologically and elegantly enjoyed.”
Source: Cradle to Cradle by William McDonough & Michael Braungart North Point Press, 2002
“to advocate and communicate a positive, robust environmental vision for packaging and to support innovative, functional packaging materials and systems that promote economic and environmental health through supply chain collaboration”
– Sustainable Packaging Coalition
Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle;
Meets market criteria for performance and cost;
Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy;
Maximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials;
Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices;
Is made from materials healthy in all probable end of life scenarios;
Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy;
Is effectively recovered and utilized in biological and/or industrial cradle to cradle cycles.
Reduce packaging across global supply chain by 5 percent by 2013 ($3.4 billion of savings)
“The primary goal of the Packaging Sustainable Value Network is to be packaging neutral by 2025, which means all packaging recovered or recycled at our stores and Clubs will be equal to the amount of packaging used by the products on our shelves.”
Also: 100% Renewable Energy, Zero Waste, Sustain Environment and Resources
Principles: “7 R’s”
Image from “The Greening of Wal-Mart”
4 sustainability principles need to be met by packaging:
effective - provide social and economic benefits;
efficient - provide benefits by using materials, energy and water as efficiently as possible;
cyclic - be recoverable through industrial or natural systems; and
safe - non-polluting and non-toxic.
They define a sustainable biomaterial as:
(1) sourced from sustainably grown and harvested cropland or forests,
(2) manufactured without hazardous inputs and impacts,
(3) healthy and safe for the environment during use, and
(4) designed to be reutilized at the end of their intended use such as via recycling or composting.
Core principles include:
Reduce the amount of material, product and packaging used;
Eliminate single-use products that can be neither recycled or composted;
Avoid fossil-fuel-based materials in favor of materials and products derived from renewable feedstocks;
Address sustainability across the life cycle of the material: the growing of the feedstock, manufacturing of the biomaterial and final product, using the product and reclaiming the material at the end of its original use;
Define sustainability to include issues of environment, health, and social and economic justice;
Design and use products that are reusable, recyclable or compostable;
Encourage agricultural systems that are sustainable for farmers, the environment, farm workers and communities;
Support small- to mid-sized family owned and operated farms;
Do not use genetically modified organisms in agricultural feedstock production;
Use chemicals that meet the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry
Avoid engineered nanomaterials and chemicals that have not been tested for environmental and public health effects across the lifecycle; and
Decentralize production and buy local to reduce the environmental footprint of production, transportation, and consumption.
because there is no Plan B.” – Marks & Spencer
A 5 year plan based on 100 Points
5 Pillars, each with a primary goal for 2012:
Climate Change - Become carbon neutral
Waste - Send no waste to landfill
Sustainable Raw Materials - Extend sustainable sourcing
Health - Help improve the lives of people in our supply chain
Fair Partner - Help customers and employees live a healthier life-style
Goals with Regard to Packaging
Reduce Use of Packaging by 25 %
Use materials from sustainable or recycled sources (cardboard, metal, glass and plastic)
Restrict range of materials to ones that are easy to recycle or compost
Print simple symbols on packaging
Reduce use of carrier beds by 33% and make all bags from recycled plastics
Action-oriented Design Guidelines
Wal-Mart Package Modeling
Scorecards, Checklists & Criteria
Lifecycle Analysis (Process,EIO, Hybrid)
Footprints (Ecological, Carbon, Water)
Evaluative Regulations & Standards
Extended Producer Responsibility
Environmental Product Declaration
Sustainable Product Standard
Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats Analysis (SWOT Analysis)
Environmental management system
Integrated chain management (ICM)
Oriented around principles
Meant to be simple
Aided by decision-making tools
Often voluntary – used by private companies, gov and ngo
Often used to check progress
Hard to compare tradeoffs
Innovative changes often not captured
Company specific data, processes, assumptions etc.
Used to track improvement
Give direction or target for industry
Specific goal(s) (EOL, waste etc)
Top-down rather than bottom-up approach
Slide from: http://me.berkeley.edu/lmas/LMAS_Web/lmas/Presentations
Includes various design strategy sections:
Design for transport
Design with environmental best practice
Design with fair labor and trade practices
Design with renewable virgin materials
Design for reuse
Design for recycling
Design for composting
Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP) runs programs to support UK government legislation and private initiatives.
Design Guidelines focus on waste reduction and material checklists, specifically:
Waste hierarchy is applied to packaging
The material checklist weighs pros and cons of each material
From the UK, 2nd ed. in 2003.
Function of packaging through the supply chain
Honesty in presentation
Convenience in use
Instructions, guidance and information
Health, safety and consumer protection
Innovation in materials and products (resource efficiency)
System considerations (packaging should improve sustainability of system and reduce was through system)
Space and weight efficiency (for transportation)
Process waste (at all points in supply chain)
Best practice with materials (enable recovery)
Energy recovery and material recycling
Scorecard is based on the MERGE Tool template
A supplier’s score, whether for secondary, tertiary or primary packaging follows this formula:
15% based on carbon dioxide per ton of production (only material manufacturing emissions are measured)
15% based on material value
15% based on product-to- package ratio
15% based on cube utilization
10% based on transportation
10% based on recycled content
10% based on recovery value
5% based on renewable energy
5% based on innovation
Rates raw materials on 8 criteria (focus on material, supplier practices and product EOL)
Design for Recyclability
Design for Reusability
Sound Materials Selection
Increased Use of Post Consumer Recycled Content
Use of Renewable Resources
Selection of Printing Methods and Materials
Selection of Environmentally Conscious Supply Partners
Each of these criteria has additional metrics associated with different packaging materials (glass, paper, rigid plastic, metal).
Final score is made by averaging each criteria score
Products are categorized on a “better,” “best” scale
Used to phase out materials, and will license to others
Cradle to gate
Cradle to grave
Cradle to cradle
Process LCA (addresses environmental inputs and outputs)
EIO LCA (addresses economic inputs and outputs)
Focus on environmental impacts of individual components/products
Does not include second order, only on-site data/processes
Identification of boundaries of analysis is more difficult for large organizations
Current best practice
Embeds process systems inside input-output tables
There is danger of double counting
able to use economic tables
large picture, grand scheme view
assumes price, output and carbon homogeneity for sectors
sectors can only be split up to examine so far
An ecological footprint is a measure of resource management/use which refers to the amount of global hectares* required to sustain the life/practices being examined. Global hectares are hectares with average global productivity.
The measure is calculated by comparing the biological resources available in a given region (accounting for its ability to create food and absorb waste using status quo technology and practices) to resource demands of an activity/population
Ecological Footprint Standards have been developed and adopted by the majority of users. Details of these standards are available at www.footprintstandards.org, which is managed by the Global Footprint Network.
Standards help to address calculation nuances, including conversions, measure of land/sea parcels, address nuclear power, varying data sources, import/export data and biodiversity etc.
Origin of the per capita ecological footprint (EF) (to highlight differences in lifestyles), carbon footprint (emphasizing the climate change trigger Co2), water footprint (water-centric metric)
Similar to a metric of a more complete life cycle analysis but for the conversion to global hectares.
Use with the Living Planet Index of biodiversity from the WWF, or a adaptation of the footprint like Lenzen & Murray’s calculation for Australia is suggested in order to compensate for the metric’s omissions.
A carbon footprint calculation measures the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions caused by the activity/instance being measured. This includes direct and indirect emissions.
“As commonly used today, for example, the term ‘carbon footprint’ often refers to the number of tonnes of carbon emitted by a given person or business during a year, or to the tonnes of carbon emitted in the manufacture and transport of a product. In Ecological Footprint accounts, the ‘carbon Footprint’ measures the amount of biological capacity, in global hectares, demanded by human emissions of fossil carbon dioxide.” - Global Footprint Standard
Others may address all GHG, only carbon, include/exclude CO, and reflect lifecycle of goods and services (Haven, 2007)
"weight" vs. "footprint“
Weight already used in calculations, therefore it does not require additional conversions to area measures
Emphasizes need for carbon “diets”
Calculations require determining three different water footprints:
blue water = surface water and ground water
green water = rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture.
In the 2 above cases, the associated footprint is the volume of water that evaporated from the water type’s total.
The grey water footprint is the volume of polluted water that associates with the production of all goods and services for the individual or community.
“The water footprint of a nation is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the people of the nation. Since not all goods consumed in one particular country are produced in that country, the water footprint consists of two parts: use of domestic water resources and use of water outside the borders of the country.” - [Hoekstra, A.Y. 2007,p 36]
The concept was created to serve as an indicator of water use, as related to consumption. The calculation takes into account direct and indirect use and is calculated by volume evaporated/polluted in a period of time. It is related to the concept of virtual water, “defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service.”
A decision-making analytical tool which uses LCA standards
Notes economic , environmental and social metrics
6 environmental parameters:
Raw materials consumption
Air and water emissions and disposal methods
Requires that systems to deal with used packaging must be created to meet % goals by weight. For example:
“by no later than 31 December 2011, between 55 and 80% by weight of packaging waste to be Recycled”
A target-setting process is repeated every five years to keep the goals up to date.
Focuses attention on:
Total amount of packaging recovered, recycled or incinerated
Packaging volume and weight
Minimize noxious and other hazardous substances and materials
Legal requirements for limits of cadmium, hexavalent chromium (chrome IV), lead and mercury
European Standards Institute (CEN) created 6 standards to help companies improve the environmental status of their packaging.
Addressed: manufacturing, composition reuse, recycling, energy recovery, composting, and the application of the management systems approach.
Only a few organizations worked to create principles, methods and metrics meant to support a coordinated vision
Social indicators of sustainability were largely ignored
Ability to provide guidance and educate at the same time, in a time effective manner was lacking
Wide audiences made targeted guidance (whether for consumers, or on material use for designers etc.) rare
There is a lack of procedural guidance for action and decision making, rather than high-level suggestions on examining the entire product system.
Different regulatory traditions influence effectiveness
Information gathered by relevant agents is not always freely available
Striking the balance between promoting change, facilitating change, and measuring change had not been reached
Methodologies included a collection of important metrics/indicators
Large investments in time and upkeep are required
Varying levels of academic rigor
The methods were created by varied stakeholders and often for multiple audiences
Data to information
Inferences from quantitative analysis
An indicator is a qualitative value which can be assigned different metrics and a metric can be calculated in different ways
sustainablemeasures.com notes 4 ways to organize indicators:
Category or issue lists – easy to comprehend
Goal/indicator matrix – emphasis comprehensiveness
Driving force-state-response tables – emphasis on impact
Endowments, liabilities, current results, and processes table categories- emphasis on longer term
Issues with measures – much depends on use
How variables are weighted or optimized,
Picking the right number to use can be difficult
Openness and transparency increases credibility
Developing a core set of performance indicators to measure the sustainability of packaging and packaging systems.
Will be published after feedback from SPC members
UN Indicators of Sustainable Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s) Science Advisory Board
Cradle to Cradle Certification Matrix
Global Reporting Initiative
Living Planet Report
Metrics from the Wal-mart Scorecard
SCJ Greenlist Packaging Criteria for Specific Materials
There are many tools and software available.
The Environmental Impact Estimator - by the ATHENA™ Sustainable Materials Institute.
BEES 3.0 - by National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory.
CMLCA - by Centre of Environmental Science (CML) - Leiden University..
Sustainable Packaging Coalition- COMPASS
Eco-Indicator 99 - by PRé Consultants.
ECO-it 1.3 - by PRé Consultants.
EcoScan 3.0 - by TNO Industrial Technology.
Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment - by Green Design Initiative of Carnegie Mellon.
EDIP PC-tool (http://www.mst.dk/activi/08030000.htm) - by Danish EPA.
The Environmental Impact Estimator - by the ATHENA™ Sustainable Materials Institute.
EPS 2000 Design System - by Assess Ecostrategy Scandinavia AB.
GaBi 4 Software System and Databases - by PE Europe GmbH and IKP University of Stuttgart.
GEMIS (Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems) - by Öko-Institut.
GREET Model- The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation
IVAM LCA Data 4.0 - by IVAM.
KCL-ECO 4.0 - by KCL.
LCAiT 4 - by CIT Ekologik.
LCAPIX - by KM Limited.
MIET 3.0 - Missing Inventory Estimation Tool - by Centre of Environmental Science (CML).
REGIS - by Sinum.
SimaPro 7 - by PRé Consultants.
SPOLD Data Exchange Software - by The Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment.
TEAM™ - by Pricewaterhouse Coopers Ecobilan Group.
Umberto - by Institute for Environmental Informatics, Hamburg.
WISARD™ - by Pricewaterhourse Coopers Ecobilan Group.
The influence of qualitative principles can be directly and indirectly seen through design guidelines, analytical methodologies, and regulations.
Methods can address economic, environmental or equity concerns, with unique scopes and emphasis
Approaches, users, and lifecycle stages covered are varied
Tools are numerous and for as many purposes and audiences as there are methods
There is no one solution
Identification of goals, scope, audience is crucial to developing benchmarks and quantitative indicators
Necessities are not often distinguished from best practices
“Would a carbon label on every product help us?” he asked. “I wonder. You can feel very good about the organic potatoes you buy from a farm near your home, but half the emissions—and half the footprint—from those potatoes could come from the energy you use to cook them. If you leave the lid off, boil them at a high heat, and then mash your potatoes, from a carbon standpoint you might as well drive to McDonald’s and spend your money buying an order of French fries.”
-Murlis, quoted in an article by M. Specter , “Big Foot.” The New Yorker. February 25, 2008
The packaging industry is not sustainable
Motivating factors for packaging manufacturing changes include
Regulatory Mandates (stick)
Economic Advantage (carrot)
Change is hindered by a vague regulatory environment, lack of informed customers and missing infrastructure
Qualitative guidelines exists, but concrete quantitative guiding measures, optimized for sustainable packaging, are needed
Further detailed analysis is needed to correlate qualitative concepts with quantitative metrics and parse best practices from necessities
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Journal of Packaging Technology and Science
Journal of Sustainable Product Design
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/lca
European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
Ecoinvent – Swiss Center For life cycle inventories http://www.ecoinvent.ch/
Journal of Cleaner Production?
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management
Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA
Journal of sustainable product design
Environmental Impact Assessment Review
Management of Environmental Quality
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production
Journal of Industrial Ecology