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JICA’s Activities on Rice Development in West Africa. - Complementary Technology of Upland NERICA Varieties -. Dr. Yoshimi SOKEI Agronomist of African Rice Initiative WARDA/ ARI/ JICA FAO Regional Workshop on Rice and Aquaculture for Productivity Increase and Market Development in East Africa

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Complementary technology of upland nerica varieties

JICA’s Activities on Rice Development in West Africa

- Complementary Technology ofUpland NERICA Varieties -

Dr.Yoshimi SOKEI

Agronomist of African Rice Initiative

WARDA/ ARI/ JICA

FAO Regional Workshop on Rice and Aquaculture for Productivity Increase and Market Development in East Africa

Kampala, Uganda

13 – 17 April, 2009


Today s topics
Today’s Topics

I. Results of Variety trial in 4 countries

(Benin, Mali, Guinea, and The Gambia)

(1) Performance of NERICAs in field level

(2) Agronomical Characteristics of NERICAs

II. Cultivation method (Complementary Tech.)

(1) Seeding Rate

(2) Seeding Method

(3) Applying Fertilizer of Top dressing


My activities
My Activities

(1) To clarify the agronomical characteristics of upland NERICA varieties with NARES

(2) To develop cultivation method of upland NERICA varieties with NARES

(3) To organize training course for NARES


Experimental sites in w africa

Bamako

Banjul ○

Burikama

●Sikasso

○Ouagadougou

●Diebougou

●Kankan

○Conakry

WARDA

Abidjan ○

Experimental Sites in W. Africa


Experimental sites in benin

Niger

Burkina Faso

●Natitingou

Togo

● Bassila

Ghana

Nigeria

●Glazoue

●Bohicon

●WARDA

Experimental sites in Benin






Characteristics of nerica varieties
Characteristics of NERICA Varieties

To identify Agronomical characteristics of NERICA varieties

  • Yield performance in different ecologies

    ・Yield and Yield component analysis

    (2) Growth characteristics to develop cultivation method in different ecology

    ・Leaf age and Tillering vs. time, Heading date, etc.


Material and method summary
Material and Method (summary)

Material: NERICA varieties, their parents, and Sativas

Method:

・Planting

Method: Dibbling

Depth: 3cm from soil surface

Number: 5 seeds/hill

Spacing: 20 x 20 cm (25hills/ m2)

・Fertilizing

Basal: N:P:K = 30:30:30 kg/ha at 14 DAS

Top dressing: N = 30 kg/ha by Urea) at Meiotic


Complementary technology of upland nerica varieties

Table 2. Yield of NERICAs in West Africa in 2007

Mali The Gambia Benin (Bohicon)

F NF F NF F NF

NERICA 1 3854 3237 1892 1431 2203 1641

NERICA 2 4635 2950 1489 859 2377 1682

NERICA 3 4889 3478 2255 1690 2648 1500

NERICA 4 3935 3901 2356 2012 2292 1394

NERICA 5 3984 3050 2208 1623 1833 1211

NERICA 6 4174 3068 1188 1056 2177 1640

NERICA 7 4260 3859 2317 1278 1752 1564

Mean 4247 3363 1958 1421 2183 1519

WAB 56-104 4397 2424 2795 2076 2249 1417

CG 14 1056 1313 1246 1627 781 1715

Dourado 3451 2772

Tox1011- 4156 3236

Kumabani 5617 3396

Sefa Fingo 353 280

Yom Koyo 1390 1066

INARIS 88 - - 2780 1901

IRAT 136 - - 2299 1840


Heading date

Table 3. Heading Date at each experiment site in 2007.

N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

N6

N7

W

CG

IS88

IRAT

DRD

SFF

YK

WARDA

80

79

76

77

73

81

75

72

86

97

99

73

96

85

Sikasso

78

75

75

79

74

78

78

74

83

-

-

74

-

-

Burikama

71

73

67

70

67

71

68

66

69

-

-

-

N.D.

78

Bohicon

81

77

77

75

73

79

79

72

94

96

102

-

-

-

Sowe

71

69

69

69

65

72

67

66

83

89

98

-

-

-

Tchetou

82

76

80

83

75

86

77

76

91

100

113

-

-

-

Heading Date

W: WAB56-104, CG:CG 14

IS88: INARIS 88, IRAT: IRAT 136 (BENIN)

DRD: Dorado precoce (Mali)

SFF: Sefa Fingo, YK: Yomkoyo (The Gambia)


Leaf age of flag leaf on nericas
Leaf Age of Flag Leaf on NERICAs

Table 4. Distribution of final leaf age (%) on NERICAs in

WARDA 2008 (Single plant/hill, N:P:K= 60:30:30kg/ha)


Present situation of upland rice cultivation method in west africa
Present Situation of Upland Rice Cultivation Method in West Africa

・Deficiencyof the Strategy for Upland Rice Cultivation

especially early maturing variety (NERICAs)

              ↓

Cultivation method is used as same as lowland Rice one and/or late maturing variety.

Exp: Timing of the fertilizer application

1st : Basal (before sowing)

2nd : 3 weeks after sowing

3rd : Panicle differentiation stage (P.I. Stage)


Complementary technology of upland nerica varieties

Parts Africa of The Yield Component under fertilizer condition

in NARI, The Gambia (2005)

(Single plant/hill)



Concept of complementary tech
Concept of Complementary Tech. 2006 (WARDA)

- Analysis of the Yield Component -

25 Hs/m2 x 8 Ps/hill x 100 Gs/panicle x 70% x 28g/1000 Gs

= 3,920 kg/ha

25 Hs/m2 x 8 Ps/hill x 80 Gs/panicle x 75% x 28g/1000 Gs

= 3,360 kg/ha

25 Hs/m2 x 7 Ps/hill x 100 Gs/panicle x 70% x 28g/1000 Gs

= 3,430 kg/ha

25 Hs/m2 x 7 Ps/hill x 80 Gs/panicle x 75% x 28g/1000 Gs

= 2,940 kg/ha


Concept of complementary tech1
Concept of Complementary Tech. 2006 (WARDA)

  • According to the Yield Component Analysis:

    (1) To Assure the No. of the Panicles/hill

    ・No. of the sown seeds/ pocket

    ・Sowing Depth

    (2) To increase % of ripened grains

    ・Change of the Fertilizer Application Timing


Development of cultivation method
Development of Cultivation Method 2006 (WARDA)

  • Seeding

    (1) The number of seeds per hill

    (2) Depth from soil surface

    (3) Seeding Method

  • Timing of fertilizer application


Seeding rates situation in the field in west africa
Seeding Rates Situation 2006 (WARDA)in the Field in West Africa


Seeding rate
Seeding Rate 2006 (WARDA)

Table 5. Produced grains vs. seeding Rate

Variety Number No. No. % Filled Survived Estimated

Ps/hill Gs/P Kernel hill(%) Gs/m2

NERICA 1 1 5.0 106 63 59.6 5,004

3 6.2 91 64 80.9 7,364

5 8.0 87 57 92.7 9,323

7 6.8 69 63 89.6 6,597

9 7.8 48 58 93.1 5,008

NERICA 2 1 4.9 116 74 63.1 6,677

3 6.2 92 79 81.3 9,169

5 7.5 80 72 92.9 10,084

7 7.3 72 77 92.4 9,430

9 9.0 57 78 95.6 9,520

NERICA 4 1 5.6 92 75 43.6 4,194

3 6.8 88 70 69.3 7,215

5 7.3 82 72 88.7 9,557

7 8.6 79 72 86.9 10,563

9 7.7 54 76 85.3 6,639


Seeding depth
Seeding Depth 2006 (WARDA)





Material and method summary1
Material and Method (summary) 2006 (WARDA)

Material: NERICA 4 and 7

Treatment: (1) 3 Seeding Methods

Dibbling, Drilling, Broad casting

(2) Seed rate

1: 5 kernels/hill (40kg/ ha),

2: 70kg/ha (8-9 kernels/ hill),

3: 90kg/ha (11-12 kernels/ hill)

Design: Complete randomized block design with 3 rep.

Method

Seeding Depth: 3cm from soil surface

Spacing: 20 x 20 cm in dibbling, 30cm int. in Drilling

Fertilizing

Basal: N:P:K = 30:30:30 kg/ha at 14 DAS

Top dressing: N = 30 kg/ha by Urea at Meiotic


Seeding method and seed rate
Seeding Method and Seed Rate 2006 (WARDA)

Table 6. Yield in different seeding method and Rate (kg/ha) 2008

Variety Method Rate Yield

5 seeds/hill 2876

Dibbling 9 seeds/hill 1994

12 seeds/hill 1939

NERICA 4 39 kg/ha 2005

Drilling 70 kg/ha 1581

90 kg/ha 1771

39 kg/ha 2221

Broadcasting 70 kg/ha 1773

90 kg/ha 1697


Fertilizer application timing
Fertilizer Application Timing 2006 (WARDA)

Present: Vegetative stage

Proposal: Reproductive stage


Example of growth of nerica 4

6 2006 (WARDA)

14

6

Leaf Age

J

5

12

The No. of tillers

É

É

J

J

J

J

J

É

J

É

É

Heading Date

J

É

É

É

5

É

É

4

10

J

Meiotic stage

É

Panicle formation stage

Leaf Age

4

8

3

Panicle differentiation stage

J

66

The no. of Tillers

J

3

É

2

J

4

2

J

1

2

É

J

1

É

0

J

É

0

J

É

0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 DAS

6/7

7/5

8/2

5/3

6/14

6/21

6/28

7/12

7/19

5/31

7/26

5/10

5/24

5/17

4/26

7/26

Time

Example of Growth of NERICA 4


Development nerica 4 1

← P.D.→ 2006 (WARDA)

← P.I.→

17DAS 24DAS31DAS 38DAS 45DAS 52DAS

Development NERICA 4(1)


Development of nerica 4 2
Development of NERICA 4 (2) 2006 (WARDA)

← P.D.→

← P.I.→

24DAS

31DAS

38DAS

45DAS


Visual indicator of initial of young panicle differentiation and formation stage
Visual Indicator of Initial of Young Panicle Differentiation and Formation Stage

2nd leaf before flag leaf

3rd leaf before flag leaf

4th leaf before flag leaf

The 3rd leaf before flag leaf is

much longer than 4th one.

When the height of the 2nd leaf

before flag leaf is as the same as

the 3rd one, young panicle can be

seen in many case(1~2mm length).


Visual indicator of meiotic stage

Length between auricles and Formation Stage

(about 1 WBH)

Visual Indicator of Meiotic stage

Young panicle around 1 WBH


Training
Training and Formation Stage

  • 1month Training Course at WARDA funded by MAFF and JICA

    2006: 5p (Guinea 1, Gambia 1, Mali 2, Benin 1)

    2007: 11p (Guinea 2, Gambia 2, Mali 1, Benin 3,

    Burkina Faso 2, Sierra Leone 1)

    2008: 8p (Guinea 2, Gambia 1, Mali 1, Benin 3, BF 1)

  • OJT at each Country

    2005: 10p (Guinea 1, Gambia 4, Mali 2, Benin 2)

    2006: 13p (Guinea 2, Gambia 5, Mali 4, Benin 2)

    2007: 18p (Guinea 3, Gambia 6, Mali 4, Benin 5)

    2008: 18p (Guinea 3, Gambia 6, Mali 4, Benin 5)


Training course at warda 1
Training Course at WARDA (1) and Formation Stage


Training course at warda 2
Training Course at WARDA (2) and Formation Stage


Ojt at each site
OJT at each site and Formation Stage


Complementary technology of upland nerica varieties

Thank you and Formation Stage


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