International Management
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International Management. Phatak, Bhagat, and Kashlak. Chapter 1. An Introduction to International Management. Chapter Objectives. Define the concepts of international business and international management. Examine the transnationality of countries and companies

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International Management

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International management

International Management

Phatak, Bhagat, and Kashlak


Chapter 1

Chapter 1

An Introduction to International Management


Chapter objectives

Chapter Objectives

  • Define the concepts of international business and international management.

  • Examine the transnationality of countries and companies

  • Distinguish among the various types of international mindsets observed in international firms.

  • Discuss the stages of development of an international company.

  • Define and understand the strategic, marketing and economic motives of firms seeking to expand internationally.

  • Explain the strategic objectives and sources of competitive advantage for an international firm.


Chapter topics

Chapter Topics

  • The International Management Setting

  • What is International Business

  • What is International Management

  • International Companies and International Mindsets

  • The Evolution of an International Enterprise

  • Why Firms Seek to Engage in International Business

  • Strategic Objectives and Sources of Competitive Advantage

  • The Environment of International Management


Fig 1 1 managing in the international environment

Fig. 1-1: Managing in the International Environment

Section I: The Macro-Environment

(Economics, Politics, Infrastructure Laws, Culture)

Section II: Firm-Level Initiatives

(Strategy, Structure, Implementation, Control)

Section III: Manager Responses

(Communication, Motivation, Leadership, Negotiations, Responsibility


Definition of international management

Definition of International Management

  • International management is defined as a process of accomplishing the global objectives of a firm by:

  • effectively coordinating the procurement, allocation, and utilization of the human, financial, intellectual, and physical resources of the firm and across national boundaries, and

  • effectively charting the path towards the desired organizational goals by navigating the firm through a global environment that is not only dynamic but often very hostile to the firm’s very survival.


Domain of international management

Domain of International Management

Why, when, and how does a business firm (as an organization) decide to “go international” including the expansion and reduction of such internalization?

Why, when, and how is its organizational behavior – a broad term covering mission, objectives, strategies, structures, staff, and processes [particularly, decision-making] internal, and external transactions and relations, performance, impact, etc. – altered by internationalization.


An international company

An International Company

… is an enterprise that has operations in two or more countries. If it has operations in several countries then it may have a network of wholly or partially (jointly with one or more foreign partners) owned producing and marketing foreign affiliates or subsidiaries. The foreign affiliates may be linked with the parent company and with each other by ties of common ownership and by a common global strategy to which each affiliate is responsive and committed. The parent company may control the foreign affiliates via resources that it allocates to each affiliate – capital, technology, trademarks, patents, and manpower – and through the right to approve each affiliate’s long- and short-range plans and budgets.


Table 1 1 largest international companies selected

Table 1-1: Largest International Companies(Selected)


International management

Table 1-3: Labor Productivity of Foreign Affiliates and Domestic Firms in Manufacturing in Selected Economies


International mindsets

International Mindsets

  • Specific pressures will affect competition in industries and firms that cross national boundaries causing

  • a global orientation that relies on coordination of worldwide activities to maximize the collective organization, and

  • a multidomestic orientation that responds to individual country opportunities and constraints.


International mindsets contd

International Mindsets(contd.)

  • Increasingly, there are pressures for international companies to be both globally efficient and locally responsive. These pressures derive from environmental changes such as new technologies, unanticipated competition, and the convergence of industry boundaries. In such situations, firms exhibit a transnational mindset to simultaneously gain efficiency and local market benefits.


Foreign market entry modes

Foreign Market Entry Modes

  • Exporting

  • Counter-trade

  • Contract manufacturing

  • Licensing

  • Franchising

  • Turnkey projects

  • Non-equity strategic alliances

  • Equity-based ventures such as wholly-owned subsidiaries and equity joint ventures


International management

Fig. 1-2: Motives to Go International

Market-Seeking

Motives

The Historically Indigenous Firm

Cost-Reduction

Motives

Strategic

Motives


Evolutionary stages

Stage 1: Foreign Inquiry

Stage 2: Export Manager

Stage 3: Export Department and Direct Sales

Stage 4: Sales Branches and Subsidiaries

Stage 5: Assembly Abroad

Stage 6: Production Abroad

Stage 7: Integration of Foreign Affiliates

Evolutionary Stages


Bandwagon effect

Bandwagon Effect

… when firms venture abroad to follow their major competitors


Ex 1 2 global strategy an organizing framework

Ex. 1-2: Global Strategy: An Organizing Framework


Ex 1 2 contd

Ex. 1-2 (contd.)

Sources of Competitive Advantage


International management

Fig. 1-3: The International Environment

Political:

Governments

Ideology

Stability

Civil Strife

Economic:

Trade Agreements

Trading Blocs

GNP/Wages

Inflation

Cultural:

Customs

Values

Language

Religion

The

International

Company

Legal:

International Law

Host Country Laws

Home Laws

International Piracy

Infrastructure:

Communications

Internet

Transportation

Technology


International management

Fig. 1-4: Fundamentals of International Management: A Model of International Management

Management/Implementation

of International Initiatives

International

Environmental

Analysis

International

Strategic

Initiatives

Organizing Int’l Operations (Chapter 9)

Economic Environment

& Infrastructure

(Chapter 2)

Controlling Int’l Operations (Chapter 10)

Strategies for

Int’l Competition

(Chapter 6)

Managing Technology

and Knowledge(Chapter 11)

Political

Environment

(Chapter 3)

Int’l Human Resource Mgmt (Chapter 12)

Foreign Modes

Of Entry

(Chapter 7)

Work Motivation (Chapter 13)

Legal

Environment

(Chapter 4)

Leadership (Chapter 14)

Int’l JVs and

Alliances

(Chapter 8)

Communications (Chapter 15)

Cultural

Environment

(Chapter 5)

Negotiations and

Decision-Making (Chapter 16)

Ethics and Social Responsibility

(Chapter 17)


Key terms and concepts

Key Terms and Concepts

  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

  • Definition of International Business

  • Definition of International Management

  • Definition of International Company

  • Transnationality Index

  • International Mindsets

    • Global orientation

    • Multidomestic orientation

    • Transnational orientation


Key terms and concepts contd

Key Terms and Concepts(contd.)

  • Evolution of an International Enterprise

  • Evolution of Service Firms

  • Motives for International Expansion

    • Market seeking

    • Cost reduction

    • Strategic

  • Global Strategy


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