Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders
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Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders. Stefan Anders. Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders. Where is the starting point?.

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Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Stefan Anders

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no1


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no2


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Whichproblems have to be solved?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no3


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Which problems have to be solved?

Whathas been achieved so far?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no4


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Which problems have to be solved?

What has been achieved so far?

Wheredo we still have to go?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no5


Where is the starting point

source: DC Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

BAM working group ‘Storage Systems’ conducts within StorHy’s subproject

‘Safety Assessment and Regulations’

safety assessment on storage systems for automotive applications.

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no6


Where is the starting point1
Where is the starting point? Cylinders

Hybridstructures (composite and metal or plastic liner) are used for compressed storage.

Composite layer is applied on the liner by a winding process.

Requirements:

- up to 70 MPa operating pressure

- temperature range -40°C to +85°C

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no7


Where is the starting point2
Where is the starting point? Cylinders

Test facility at BAM for extreme temperature hydraulic cycling tests

max. pressure: 120 MPa (dynamic) temperature: -60°C to +90°C

350 MPa (static)

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no8


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Whichproblems have to be solved?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no9


Which problems have to be solved
Which problems have to be solved? Cylinders

Problem:

Identical cylinders from the same batch show differentsafety relevant structural behavior:

- strain level on the same pressure

- number of load cycles to failure

- burst pressure

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no10


Which problems have to be solved1
Which problems have to be solved? Cylinders

safe

Structural behavior is strongly depend on the boundary condition temperature

light weight structure

economic production

fast production

Accurate stress analyses for lifetime prediction

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no11


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Which problems have to be solved?

Whathas been achieved so far?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no12


What has been achieved so far
What has been achieved so far? Cylinders

Tests on resin systems showed clearly the strong temperature depending material behavior.

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no13


What has been achieved so far1
What has been achieved so far? Cylinders

*

* Stefan Anders, Residual Stresses in Composite-Metal Structures for High H2 Gas Cylinders, CANCOM 07, Winnipeg, Canada

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no14


What has been achieved so far2

temperature distribution Cylinders

probability density function

class frequency

overall class frequency

What has been achieved so far?

How often does each temperature class loads the cylinder?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no15


What has been achieved so far3

mean value Cylinders

abs. min

mean value

standard deviation

What has been achieved so far?

  • Probability density function

  • (for each calendar months)

  • Assumption:

  • - temperature distribution follows a Gaussian (normal) distribution

  • Input:

  • mean value of min/max temperature

  • abs. min/max temperature

    • = standard deviation

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no16


What has been achieved so far4
What has been achieved so far? Cylinders

  • Class frequency

  • (for each calendar months)

  • setting temperature classes Tk at an increment of T = 5°C

  • solving the definite integral for each temperature class

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no17


What has been achieved so far5
What has been achieved so far? Cylinders

  • Overall class frequency

  • for all temperature classes Tk of the 12 calendar month the arithmetic mean value is determined

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no18


What has been achieved so far6

Jokkmokk – max. stress amplitude – frequency 0.27% Cylinders

Jokkmokk – max. frequency 19.6%

max. filling temperature

What has been achieved so far?

Thermal stresses in the liner layer (0°-90°-Al hybrid)

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no19


Thermal Loading Cases of Hydrogen High Pressure Storage Cylinders

Where is the starting point?

Which problems have to be solved?

What has been achieved so far?

Wheredo we still have to go?

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no20


Where do we still have to go
Where do we still have to go? Cylinders

So far it could be shown:

cold and warm temperatures do load or unload the composite and the liner (fatigue)

temperature effect is mainly effective in the resindominated directions

lay-up influences the degree of temperature effect (avoid shear stresses)

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no21


Where do we still have to go1
Where do we still have to go? Cylinders

Issues which still have to be considered, among others:

influence of dynamic loading (pressure and temperature load cycles) which leads to fatigue (degradation models)

long term behavior with visco-elastic effects

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no22


Thank you for your attention Cylinders

BAM - III.2

Unter den Eichen 44-46

D-12205 Berlin

Germany

Stefan Anders

Tel.: +49 (0) 30/8104-3981

Fax: +49 (0) 30/8104-1327

E-Mail: [email protected]

Stefan Anders BAM ICHS – San Sebastian – 2007 September 11-13slide no23


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