Political philosophy john locke the second treatise on government
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Political Philosophy: John Locke, The Second Treatise on Government. John Locke: His Context.

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Political Philosophy: John Locke, The Second Treatise on Government

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Political philosophy john locke the second treatise on government

Political Philosophy:John Locke, The Second Treatise on Government


John locke his context

John Locke: His Context

John Locke was born on August 29, 1632 in Wrington. An Oxford academic and medical researcher, Locke became a government official charged with collecting information about trade and colonies. His philosophy focuses on the idea of the individual and the state of nature which knows no government, but where men are subject to moral law.


Excerpts from the second treatise on government

Excerpts from The Second Treatise on Government

The following is an interactive exploration of Locke’s philosophy.

Please stand up!

During the presentation, read through the excerpts from The Second Treatise on Government and then remain standing if you agree with the statement in question.

Let us begin…


Theme state of nature

Theme: State of Nature

Excerpt

“The first is to do whatsoever he thinks fit for the preservation of himself, and others within the permission of the law of nature: by which law, common to them all, he and all the rest of mankind are one community, make up one society, distinct from all other creatures. And were it not for the corruption and vitiousness of degenerate men, there would be no need of any other; no necessity that men should separate from this great and natural community, and by positive agreements combine into smaller and divided.“

Do you agree that the ultimate state of nature is self-preservation through a natural set of laws that without corruption would keep all men united in one community?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down.


Theme state of nature and why people abandon it

Theme: State of Nature and Why People Abandon It

Excerpt

“If man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? Why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and control of any other power? To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very insecure. This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is not without reason, that he seeks out, and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I call by the general name, property.”

Do you agree that freedoms are exchanged for the protection of property?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down.


Theme creation of the commonwealth

Theme: Creation of the Commonwealth

Excerpt

"The great and chief end, therefore, of men's uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property. To which in the state of nature there are many things wanting.“

Do you agree that the ultimate fear of losing property is what drives men to alliance with a government?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down.


Theme nature of the commonwealth

Theme: Nature of the Commonwealth

Excerpt

"…the power of the society, or legislative constituted by them, can never be supposed to extend farther, than the common good; but is obliged to secure every one's property, by providing against those defects above mentioned, that made the state of nature so unsafe and uneasy.“

Do you agree that the power of society doesn’t extend beyond what is good for all of society?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down.


Theme nature of the commonwealth1

Theme: Nature of the Commonwealth

Excerpt:

"The legislative, or supreme authority, cannot assume to its self a power to rule by extemporary arbitrary decrees, but is bound to dispense justice, and decide the rights of the subject by promulgated standing laws, and known authorized judges: for the law of nature being unwritten, and so no where to be found but in the minds of men, they who through passion or interest shall miscite, or misapply it, cannot so easily be convinced of their mistake where there is no established judge: and so it serves not, as it ought, to determine the rights, and fence the properties of those that live under it, especially where every one is judge, interpreter, and executioner of it too…”.

Do you agree that a commonwealth needs stated laws to prevent men from manipulating them for their own benefit?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down


Theme nature of the commonwealth2

Theme: Nature of the Commonwealth

Excerpt

"It is true, governments cannot be supported without great charge, and it is fit every one who enjoys his share of the protection, should pay out of his estate his proportion for the maintenance of it. But still it must be with his own consent, i.e. the consent of the majority, giving it either by themselves, or their representatives chosen by them: for if any one shall claim a power to lay and levy taxes on the people, by his own authority, and without such consent of the people, he thereby invades the fundamental law of property, and subverts the end of government: for what property have I in that, which another may by right take, when he pleases, to himself?”

Do you agree that governments can not have taxation without representation?

If so, stay standing. If not, sit down.


Debrief locke s key points

Debrief: Locke’s Key Points

If you remained standing it indicates that you agree with Locke’s arguments for giving power to the collective society.

Without corruption men could live in a state of nature that allows for self-preservation.

Men will give up certain freedoms order to protect their property.

To protect their property men will join the collective society, or commonwealth.

The power of the society can not extend beyond what is considered the common good.

Society needs to establish a system of laws to protect from individual manipulation.

In order to protect the commonwealth there must be taxation, but this can not occur without proper representation.


Au travail

Au travail!!!

Hobbes et Locke, sont-ils d’accord sur la conception de la nature humaine?

Dans un paragraphe bien écrit, expliquez les différences entre Hobbes et Locke et donnez votre avis personnel sur ces deux conceptions différentes.


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