The Colonies & Britain Grow Apart. Ch.6, Sec.1 – Tighter British Control.
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- the colonists had helped the British win the French & Indian War, so they were very upset when England passed the Proclamation of 1763, denying them access to the fertile Ohio River Valley to prevent another “Pontiac Rebellion”
- the colonists were used to England’s salutary neglect policy, so this was not a change they welcomed!
- by 1765, King George III wanted to keep the peace with the Native Americans, so he enforced the Quartering Act
- colonists were forced to house 10,000 British soldiers and providethem with supplies!
- most of the soldiers were placed in the colony of New York
- because England was in debt after the French & Indian War, they were forced to increase their revenue
- they did this by charging the colonists for their frontier defense, colonial government, and involvement in the French & Indian War!!!
- England started taxing the colonists directly
- in 1764, England passed the Sugar Act, which placed a tax on sugar & molasses
- colonial merchants traded these goods, so they reacted angrily at being taxed
- colonists were not represented in Parliament, so colonists like James Otis claimed they had no right to tax them
- Otis claimed, “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”, but the English said they were subject to their laws & taxes
- in 1765, England passed the StampAct which taxed papers, letters, contracts, and diplomas
- taxes had to be paid in silver coin, which was a rarity for the colonists
- Samuel Adams, a leader in the Massachusetts legislature argued that what was to stop England from taxing everything, including their land?
- Patrick Henry, a member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses, called for a resistance to the tax
- when another member shouted that resistance was treason, Henry replied, “If this be treason, make the most of it!”
- colonial assemblies & newspapers took up the cry, “No taxation without representation!”
- colonists got together in New York City to petition the Stamp Act and decided it was the assemblies right to tax, not Parliament’s
- thus, colonial merchants organized a boycott, or a refusal to buy, on British goods
- some colonists formed secret societies to oppose British policies & the most famous group was the Sons of Liberty
- they would burn paper & tar and feather customs officials
- some British political leaders, including William Pitt, spoke out against the Stamp Act and began siding with the Americans
- the Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament in A.D. 1766
- in its place, they passed the Declaratory Act, which gave Parliament supreme authority to govern the colonies
- the central issue was control of the colonies by A.D. 1767