Chapter 1: Origins, ca. 400,000-1100 B.C.E. i>Clicker Questions. Which of the following best defines civilization ?. A system of manners and social conduct A system of social and political organization and shared way of thinking and believing
Chapter 1: Origins, ca. 400,000-1100 B.C.E.
Which of the following best defines civilization?
Why did American educational leaders create the Western civilization course?
Artifacts discovered at Avebury and similar stone circle sites prove which of the following?
During the Neolithic era, the development of agriculture and transition to settled life
The Sumerian system of writing
In Neolithic society, the building of walls
The patriarch of a tribe in Sumerian society
Which of the following was a consequence of the harsh environment of Sumer?
Which of the following best characterizes slaves in Sumerian society?
How did the Hittites interact with their powerful Egyptian and Babylonian neighbors?
Answer Key for Chapter 1
Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, ca. 1100-513 B.C.E.
How did the fall of the large empires of Egypt and the Hittites affect the small kingdoms of the Near East (the Phoenicians and the Hebrews)?
How were the Libyans affected by their conquests in Egypt?
As they moved into Palestine, how did the Hebrews interact with their neighbors?
When Israel divided after the death of Solomon, what central difference emerged between Israel and Judah?
How did the kingdom of Judah survive Assyrian expansion?
As nomadic Hebrews transitioned to settled agriculture, how was their society transformed?
How did Persias central geographic featurea broad central plateau in the heart of the countryaffect the regions development?
What innovation did the Assyrians bring to palace artwork?
What was the central theme of the teaching of Zoroaster?
Which of the following correctly characterizes the teachings of Zoroaster?
Answer Key for Chapter 2
Chapter 3: The Development of Classical Greece, ca. 2000-338 B.C.E.
How did Greeces geography affect its development?
Which one of the following best characterizes Mycenaean society?
The political center of the polis, where shops, public buildings, and courts were located, was called the
What was the fundamental effect of Pisistratuss reign as tyrant in Athens?
How did the process of colonization affect the Greeks?
Every four years the Athenians held their most important religious festival in which they processed to
How did the Megarian Decree seek to punish Megara?
What did Greek mystery cults offer their initiates?
Which of the following statements best describes the meaning of the plays of Sophocles?
When did Greeks typically visit religious shrines and temples?
Answer Key for Chapter 3
Chapter 4: The Hellenistic World, 336-30 B.C.E.
As Alexander launched his journey of conquest, who accompanied him in addition to the military?
How was the Hellenic period different from the Hellenistic period?
In order to promote political unity, to whom did the Hellenistic monarchs link themselves?
Why did Hellenistic monarchs seek to make their states resemble the Greek polis?
The Seleucid dynasty adopted Hellenization most significantly because
Why didnt innovations in manufacturing technologies occur during the Hellenistic period?
What major advantage did the mystery religions have over the older Greek mystery cults?
Which one of the following best characterizes Jews in Hellenistic cities?
Why was the city of Alexandria in Egypt an important intellectual center?
How did the new military machinery affect warfare?
Answer Key for Chapter 4
Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 750-31 B.C.E.
What achievement provided the foundation for Romes success?
How did the Etruscans organize themselves politically?
Why did the senate gain prestige and power in the early republic of Rome?
How did the political power of the plebeians change during the course of the early Roman republic?
How did the Roman conquests develop?
The pax Romana refers to
How did Roman conquests affect Roman society?
What native artistic tradition did Roman artists sustain despite influences from Greece?
Why was Cleopatra hated by the Roman people when she came to Rome with Julius Caesar?
Why did the senate make a mistake in refusing to grant land to veterans?
Answer Key for Chapter 5
Chapter 6: The Pax Romana, 31 B.C.E.-284 C.E.
The Augustan settlement included all of the following except
How did Augustus reform the Roman army?
How did the historian Livy seek to support the reforms of Augustus?
What form did same-sex relationships between men typically take in the Augustan era?
How did authorities distinguish between citizens and noncitizens in Rome?
How was daily life in the provinces of Asia Minor different from daily life in northern Europe?
What was the central belief of Jewish militant apocalypticism in the first century C.E.?
For the earliest Christians, what did the belief in Jesus resurrection signify?
How was farming life threatened in the third century C.E.?
How did the Christian thinker Justin Martyr seek to reconcile pagan culture with Christianity?
Answer Key for Chapter 6
Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250-600
How did Diocletian and Constantine emphasize the exalted position of the emperor as the elect of god?
How did the growing raids from barbarians affect the local relationships between landlords and small landholders?
Why did Christians have great respect for monks?
How did the Benedictines assist local and royal governments?
Runic inscriptions provide information about barbarian societies from what regions?
During the third and fourth centuries, how were barbarian war bands transformed?
How did the Romans respond when crop failures and famine affected their Visigoth allies?
The Visigothic state in southern France and Spain was overthrown by
How did the practice of confessions change from early Christianity to the fifth century?
What did the Law Code of Justinian accomplish?
Answer Key for Chapter 7
Chapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600-1000
The Bedouins and urbanized Arabs of the sixth century shared what common characteristic?
What is the essential element in the Islamic idea of jihad?
Which one of the following does not correctly characterize the Moorish city of Crdoba?
Islamic scholars made important advancements in which two fields of study?
How did Charlemagne justify his long battles in Germany?
In the Carolingian Renaissance, what was the main purpose of the revival of learning?
Which of the following concerning Viking boats is not true?
What did the Frankish king Charles the Simple give the Vikings to buy them off during an invasion?
Which of the following was not a common practice of manorialism?
The transition from free laborers to serfdom was accelerated by
Answer Key for Chapter 8
Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000-1300
How did William the Conqueror transform the feudal system in England?
What fundamental principle did the French crown seek to establish in appointing royal agents in the provinces?
How did Roger de Hauterville create political innovations after he captured Sicily?
Why did Frederick II found the University of Naples?
How were popes selected in the tenth century?
How did the investiture controversy affect political power in the German-speaking lands?
How did the Crusaders organize the territory they conquered in the First Crusade?
In the Fourth Crusade, whom did the Crusaders attack?
Why did German emperor Otto I establish a string of dioceses along his northern and eastern borders?
Why was Christianity slow to progress in Sweden and Finland?
Answer Key for Chapter 9
Chapter 10: The Life of the People in the High Middle Ages, 1000-1300
Which of the following is not a category within the popular image of society in the High Middle Ages?
How did the advent of the money economy affect the status of the serfs?
How did the productivity of agricultural communities improve in the tenth and eleventh centuries?
Which of the following does not correctly characterize medical care during the twelfth century?
What tensions existed between the church and the people over saints?
How did the sacramental system affect the role of priests?
Which one of the following best characterizes the chivalric ideal?
Where did noble girls receive experience as servants or ladies in waiting?
How did abbeys parallel the larger society?
Which of the following best characterizes the membership of convents?
Answer Key for Chapter 10
Chapter 11: The Creativity and Challenges of Medieval Cities, 1100-1300
Which of the following was not the typical origin of a medieval town?
What role did the leaders of the merchant guild hold in most towns?
The Hanseatic League was
How did rulers respond to the growing wealth of merchants?
Why did lords of the manor limit the education of peasants?
How did Peter Abelards scholarship differ from most of his colleagues?
What themes infused the poems and songs of the troubadours?
What was the central innovation of Gothic architecture?
How did the urban environment affect the Dominican and Franciscan orders?
How did the new orders of Dominicans and Franciscans differ from the Benedictine tradition?
Answer Key for Chapter 11
Chapter 12: The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450
Why did storms and poor weather directly affect local populations in the High Middle Ages?
In addition to fleas, how else was the plague typically spread in the fourteenth century?
How was the economic position of laborers affected by the plague?
Why did some French nobles side with the English in the 100 Years War?
How did the English Parliament expand its authority during the course of the 100 Years War?
How did the Lollards challenge traditional gender roles?
How did the guild structure change in some fourteenth-century manufacturing?
The late age of marriage in northern and western Europe resulted in
How does Chaucers Canterbury Tales reflect the cultural tensions of the fourteenth century?
Why did literacy spread in the fourteenth century?
Answer Key for Chapter 12
Chapter 13: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350-1550
What did Giorgio Vasari mean by using the word renaissance?
How did the nobility in northern Italy respond to the growth of power and wealth among the urban merchant guilds?
How did the Renaissance writers interpret Julius Caesars role in Roman history?
What did humanists understand as the goal of a humanist education?
What was the essence of Desiderius Erasmuss thought?
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, how did art in northern Europe differ from art in Italy?
What general attitudes did Europeans have toward Africa?
How did the hierarchy of wealth differ from the hierarchy of orders?
How did the French monarchy and the papacy resolve the conflict over the appointment of church officials?
In reorganizing his royal power, to whom did Charles VII of France give more influence?
Answer Key for Chapter 13
Chapter 14: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500-1600
In the early sixteenth century, men and women demonstrated their religious piety through all of the following means except
What new understanding of salvation did Martin Luther propose?
How did humanists respond to the Lutheran reform movement?
How did Luther justify his rejection of the peasants in the Peasants War?
Why did Henry VIII believe that God was displeased with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon?
How did Henry VIII dispose of lands seized from the church?
How do many historians understand the developments within the Catholic Church after the Reformation as two movements?
What was the goal of the French at the Council of Trent?
Why did inquisitions often not lead to the executions of accused witches?
Why were witch panics most common in small territorial states?
Answer Key for Chapter 14
Chapter 15: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450-1650
From what did the European voyages of discovery derive?
How did the Ottoman expansion affect European trade?
What role did Prince Henry play in European expansion?
What relationship did Vasco da Gama forge with the Indians in Calicut?
Why did fierce competition emerge over fishing for cod in the waters off Newfoundland?
How role did the intendants serve in Spanish America?
What crop did the Spanish establish over their entire domain in the Americas?
Why did Spains productive capacity decline during its golden age?
Michel de Montaigne made use of the tradition of skepticism, which emphasized
William Shakespeares Othello seems to echo
Answer Key for Chapter 15
Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589-1725
In Western Europe, which of the following was not one of the primary groups within rural life?
How did the urban-rural dynamic change in Eastern Europe in the seventeenth century?
What was Richelieus main foreign policy goal?
What role did women play within the French patronage systems?
In Austria and Prussia, what did nobles receive in exchange for growing monarchical authority?
How did Ivan IV seek to crush the power of the boyars?
How did the Ottomans establish an effective bureaucracy?
Why were religious tensions in England increasing in the early seventeenth century?
How did the coronation of William and Mary resolve the issue of sovereignty in England?
The Catholic Church wanted the baroque movement to promoted what sensibility?
Answer Key for Chapter 16
Chapter 17: Toward a New Worldview, 1540-1789
How did Ptolemy account for the apparent backward motion of planets?
Why did Copernicus find Ptolemys system unsatisfactory?
Of his many accomplishments, what was Galileos greatest achievement?
What was the central component of Isaac Newtons unified system of the universe?
How did Enlightenment thinkers differ from those of the Renaissance?
What did Montesquieu believe was the central condition to promote liberty and prevent tyranny?
What role did the salonnires play within salons?
Which of the following best characterizes the public sphere?
How did Frederick II of Prussia provide a new justification for monarchy?
What was the principle idea of cameralism?
Answer Key for Chapter 17