Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Refinery and tank storage facilities, like this one in Texas, are needed to change the hydrocarbons of crude oil to many different petroleum products. The classes and properties of hydrocarbons form one topic of study in organic chemistry. Organic Chemistry.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry


Organic chemistry

Refinery and tank storage facilities, like this one in Texas, are needed to change the hydrocarbons of crude oil to many different petroleum products. The classes and properties of hydrocarbons form one topic of study in organic chemistry.


Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

  • Organic Chemistry is the systematic study of the compounds of carbon excluding oxides of carbon, carbonates, carbides and cyanides .

  • These exceptions plus the compounds of the remaining elements are considered to inorganic


Organic chemistry

Organic Compounds


Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • Contain carbon

  • Have covalent bonds

  • Have low melting points

  • Have low boiling points

  • Burn in air (oxygen)

  • Are soluble in nonpolar solvents

  • Form large molecules

Timberlake LecturePLUS


Organic chemistry

  • An organic compound is one that has carbon as the principal element

  • An inorganic element is any compound that is not an organic compound.

  • Carbon is unique

    • It has 6 electrons in its outer shell arranges 1s22s2sp2

    • It has room for 4 bonds to 4 other atoms.

  • Organic compounds have specific geometry around the carbon to carbon bond.

    • If there are four atoms or groups around a carbon atom, it has a tetrahedral geometry.


Organic chemistry

(A)The carbon atom forms bonds in a tetrahedral structure with a bond angle of 109.5O. (B) Carbon-to-carbon bond angles are 109.5O, so a chain of carbon atoms makes a zigzag pattern. (C) The unbranched chain of carbon atoms is usually simplified in a way that looks like a straight chain, but it is actually a zigzag, as shown in (B).


Organic chemistry

Hydrocarbons


Hydro carbons

Hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons are the simplest of the organic compounds. As the name suggests, hydrocarbons are made from hydrogen and carbon.

  • The basic building block is one carbon with two hydrogens attached, except at the ends where three hydrogens are attached.

  • Carbon has vacancies for four electrons in its outer shell. So it wants to bond to four atoms. Here we see hydrocarbons with one to four carbons: methane (natural gas), ethane, propane, and butane(lighter fluid).


Organic chemistry

  • Introduction

    • A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting of only hydrogen and carbon.

    • The carbon to carbon can be single, double, or triple bonds.

    • The bonds are always nonpolar.

    • Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds.

      • Alkanes occur in what is called a homologous series.

      • Each successive compound differs from the one before it only by a CH2


Organic chemistry

Hydrocarbons

Large family of organic compounds

Composed of only carbon and hydrogen

Saturated hydrocarbons

Alkanes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

Alkenes, Alkynes & Aromatics

C = C

C C

C - C


Organic chemistry

Carbon

  • Carbon has four valence electrons; hydrogen has one.

  • • C • H •

  • To obtain an octet, carbon forms four bonds.

  • HH

  • • •

  • H  C  H H C HCH4 , methane

  • • •

  • H H


Organic chemistry

  • Carbon-to-carbon bonds can be single (A), double (B), or triple (C).

  • Note that in each example, each carbon atom has four dashes, which represent four bonding pairs of electrons, satisfying the octet rule.

  • Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds.

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double or triple bonds.


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