Prenatal development
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Prenatal Development. Dennis Karpowitz Psychology 333 Child Psychology. Chris and Kim on Conception Island. Female Reproductive Organs. Conception. Every 28 days, an ovum, lasts 24 hours Millions of sperm, viable for up to 6 days Conception in the fallopian tube Tubal pregnancy

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Prenatal Development

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Prenatal development

Prenatal Development

  • Dennis Karpowitz

  • Psychology 333

  • Child Psychology

Chris and Kim on Conception Island


Prenatal development

Female Reproductive Organs


Conception

Conception

  • Every 28 days, an ovum, lasts 24 hours

  • Millions of sperm, viable for up to 6 days

  • Conception in the fallopian tube

    • Tubal pregnancy

  • Conceptions most likely: on day of ovulation or the two days preceding ovulation


Conception1

Conception


The period of the zygote or the germinal stage

The Period of the Zygote or the Germinal Stage

  • First Two weeks following conception

  • From fallopian tubes to attachment tothe uterine wall

  • Blastocyst, 60-70 cells, 4th day

    • Embryonic disk (organism)

    • Outer Ring (umbilical cord & placenta)

  • Implantation between days 7 & 9


Zygote period continued

Zygote Period Continued

  • Amnion Membrane, amniotic fluid

  • Yolk sack produces blood cells

  • Chorion Membrane

  • Placenta - Food, oxygen, waste

  • Umbilical cord

  • 30% of zygotes do NOT survive


The period of the embryo

The Period of the Embryo

  • From 2nd week through 2nd month

  • Very rapid prenatal development

  • Embryonic disk folds into three layers

    • Ectoderm - Nervous system (fast develop.) & skin

    • Mesoderm - skeleton, muscles, circulation

    • Endoderm - Digestion, lungs, urinary tract

5.5 Weeks

9 Weeks


Embryonic period cont

Embryonic Period Cont.

  • Many body parts develop the 2nd month

    • Fingers, toes, facial features, nervous system cells fire, teeth buds have formed

  • Embryo’s posture becomes upright

  • The embryo can move

  • The embryo responds to touch (mouth & feet)


11 week fetus

11 Week Fetus


The period of the fetus

The Period of the Fetus

  • Growth and finishing

  • Third month

    • Organs, muscles & nervous system organize and connect

    • External genitals – visible with ultrasound

    • End of first trimester


Second trimester

Second Trimester

  • 13-24 weeks - first movement felt

  • Vernix covers fetus, prevents chapping

  • Lanugo hold vernix to skin

  • Trillions of brain neurons produced

    • Stimulated by sound and light


Third trimester

Third Trimester

  • Age of viability - 22 to 26 weeks

  • Cerebral cortex enlarges

    • Responsive to external stimulation

  • Fat layer develops for temp. reg.

  • Moves to the upside-down position

  • Fetus moves less


Teratogens

Teratogens

  • Environmental influences or agents that can damage the developing organism


Influence of teratogens

Influence of Teratogens

  • Larger doses, over time, more negative

  • Genetics can help or hinder teratogens

  • Several negative factors increase impact

  • Sensitive periods especially important

  • Embryonic period most susceptible

  • Physical and psychological effects


Drugs

Drugs

  • Thalidomide – sedative - 1960’s

  • Aspirin - low birth weight, infant deathPoor motor develop., lower IQ

  • Heavy caffeine use - miscarriagePremature births, irritability


Illegal drugs

Illegal Drugs

  • Cocaine, heroin, methadone

    • Prematurity, low birth weight

    • Physical defects, breathing problems,

    • Drug addiction & death

  • Cocaine - lasting difficulties

    • Genital, urinary tract, kidney, heart deformities

    • Brain seizures


Crack babies

Crack babies

  • Lowest birth weight

  • Central nervous system damage

  • Fathers on cocaine may pass it on

  • Multiple harmful effects of more than one drug


Tobacco use

Tobacco use

  • Low birth weight and premature births

  • Impaired breathing

  • Miscarriage & infant death

  • Placenta doesn’t work correctly

  • Greater concentration of carbon monoxide

  • Passive smoking also injurious


Alcohol

Alcohol

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

    • Large amounts of alcohol, whole pregnancy

    • Mental retardation

    • Slow physical growth

    • Facial abnormalities

  • Alcohol interferes with cell duplication

    • Especially neural cells

  • Draws oxygen away from organism


Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Hormones

Hormones

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 1945-70

    • Vaginal cancer

    • Malformation of the uterus

    • Miscarriage, low birth weight

    • In males, genital abnormalities, cancer


Radiation

Radiation

  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki

    • Miscarriage, slow physical growth

    • Underdeveloped brains

    • Malformation of skeleton & eyes

  • X-Rays - avoid during pregnancy


Environmental pollutants

Environmental Pollutants

  • 100,000 in common use

  • Mercury

    • Mental retardation, speech problems

    • Difficulty chewing & swallowing

    • Uncoordinated movements

  • Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)

    • Lower birth weight, smaller heads

    • Poor memory, lower verbal IQ


Maternal disease

Maternal Disease

  • Viruses - Most not harmful

  • Rubella

    • Heart defects, cataracts, deafness

    • Genital, urinary & intestinal problems

  • HIV & AIDS

    • 20-30% Mothers pass to infants

    • Fast growth in infants

    • Most survive 5 to 8 months


Maternal disease cont

Maternal Disease Cont.

  • Herpes viruses

    • Babies infected during pregnancyor at birth

  • Bacterial & Parasitic Diseases

    • Toxoplasmosis from meat or cats

    • 40% transmission

    • Eye & brain damage


Positive health activities

Positive Health Activities

  • Moderate, low impact exercise

  • Healthy diet - vitamin supplements

    • Malnutrition causes problems

    • WIC Program

  • Low stress

    • Intense anxiety >> miscarriage, prematurebirth, low birth weight, respiratory illness,Cleft palate & Pyloric stenosis


Rh factor

Rh Factor

  • Mother Rh -, father Rh+, Child Rh+

  • Antibodies against foreign Rh protein

  • RhoGam within 72 hours


Prenatal health care

Prenatal Health Care

  • Every month of pregnancy visit MD

  • 2X/Month for the last two months


Watch for

Watch For . . .

  • Diabetes complications

  • Toxemia

  • Get vaccinations before becoming pregnant


Prenatal courses

Prenatal Courses

  • Information: Birth & Parenting

  • Exercises

  • Support


  • Login