History of astronomy
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History of Astronomy. Astronomy is the study of e verything in the universe. astron = “star”; nomos = “law” or “arrangement of” Oldest Science Navigation, the North Star doesn’t “move” Predict seasons, Big Dipper – plant crops Timekeeping Keeping track of Time

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History of Astronomy

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History of astronomy

History of Astronomy

  • Astronomy is the study of everything in the universe.

    • astron= “star”; nomos= “law” or “arrangement of”

  • Oldest Science

    • Navigation, the North Star doesn’t “move”

    • Predict seasons, Big Dipper – plant crops

    • Timekeeping

      • Keeping track of Time

      • All of our time-keeping conventions are astronomically based:

      • The Year is based on the time it takes Earth to orbit the Sun.

      • The Month is based on the cycle of the Lunar Phases

      • The Day is based on the time it takes the Earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the Sun.

    • Astrology, “predict” human behavior


Greeks

Greeks

  • Pythagoras (570 BC – 495 BC) Believed that Earth was a perfect sphere centered in a celestial sphere, also a spherical shell


Greeks1

Greeks

  • Aristotle – (384 BC – 322 BC) planets move different from stars

    • Geocentric model - Planets and stars revolve around Earth on spherical “shells”; Earth is the center of universe (Ptolemaic system)

    • geo = Earth; centric = “center”


History of astronomy

Geocentric Model


Dark ages middle ages 500 ad 1400 ad

Dark Ages/Middle ages500 AD – 1400 AD

  • Intellectual darkness: the period seems "dark" because of the scarcity of artistic and cultural output,including historical records when compared with both earlier and later times in history.


Renaissance 1400 1700

Renaissance1400 - 1700

  • Revival of art, literature, and

    learning

  • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) Mathematician and astronomer

  • Identified the concept of the Heliocentric solar system. A system in which the Sun rather than the Earth is the center. Still had fundamental problems with concept though.

  • helio = “sun”; centric = “center”

  • Scientific Method of Investigation


History of astronomy

Heliocentric model


Renaissance

Renaissance

  • Tycho Brahe – (1546 – 1601) known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

    • Recorded enough data on the motion of stars & planets to within 1 arc minute

  • Johannes Kepler – (1571 – 1630) Tycho’s assistant

    • Orbit of planets are ellipses

    • Unification of astronomy and physics


History of astronomy

ellipse


R enaissance

Renaissance

  • Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) Italian Scientist considered Godfather of modern astronomy.

    • Turned toy into telescope

    • Observed/discovered sunspots

    • Stars not fixed to celestial sphere.

    • Venus goes through phases similar to

      Moon showing that both Earth &

      Venus orbit the Sun.

    • 4 moons of Jupiter proved that not everything in the sky revolves around the Earth.

    • His ideas were considered controversial; he was tried and

      sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life.


History of astronomy

4 moons of Jupiter


History of astronomy

Basilica di Santa Croce

Florence, Italy


History of astronomy response

History of Astronomy response

  • Draw and explain the Geocentric model.

  • Draw and explain the Heliocentric model.

  • Draw and explain an ellipse.

  • Draw and explain Galileo Galilei’s contributions to astronomy


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