Planning instruction by analyzing classroom and student needs
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Planning Instruction by Analyzing Classroom and Student Needs. Chapter 5 Including Students with Special Needs. The INCLUDE Strategy. Student performance is the result of an interaction between the student and the instructional environment

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Planning instruction by analyzing classroom and student needs

Planning Instruction by Analyzing Classroom and Student Needs

Chapter 5

Including Students with Special Needs


The include strategy

The INCLUDE Strategy

  • Student performance is the result of an interaction between the student and the instructional environment

  • Carefully examining and analyzing students’ learning needs and the specific demands of the classroom environment, teachers can reasonably accommodate most students with special needs in the classroom.


The include strategy1

The INCLUDE Strategy

  • Identify classroom demands

  • Note student learning strengths and needs

  • Check for potential areas of student success

  • Look for potential problem areas

  • Use information to brainstorm adaptations

  • Decide which adaptations to use

  • Evaluate strategy effectiveness


Step 1 identify classroom demands

Step 1: Identify Classroom Demands

  • Classroom organization

    • Physical organization

    • Classroom routines

    • Classroom climate

    • Classroom rules and monitoring

    • Use of time

  • Classroom grouping

    • Whole

    • Small

    • One-to-one


Step 1 identify classroom

Step 1: Identify Classroom

  • Instructional materials

    • Textbooks

    • Manipulatives and models

    • Computers

    • Assistive technology

  • Instructional methods

    • Direct instruction

    • Indirect instruction (inquiry learning)

    • Scaffolding

    • Independent student practice (homework)

    • Evaluation of student performance


Step 2 note student learning strengths and needs

Step 2: Note Student Learning Strengths and Needs

  • Academics

  • Social-emotional development

  • Physical development


Step 3 check for potential areas of student success

Step 3: Check for Potential Areas of Student Success

  • Analyze student strengths

  • Success enhances self-image and motivation


Step 4 look for potential problem areas

Step 4: Look for Potential Problem Areas

  • Review learning needs within a particular instructional context and potential mismatches are identified


Step 5 use information to brainstorm adaptations

Step 5: Use Information to Brainstorm Adaptations

  • Accommodations (stays the same)

    • Services or supports provided to help students gain full access to class content and instruction.

  • Modifications (changes)

    • Made when the content expectations are altered and the performance outcomes expected of students change.


Step 6 decide which adaptations to implement

Step 6: Decide Which Adaptations to Implement

  • Select age appropriate adaptations

  • Select the easiest adaptations first

  • Select adaptations you agree with

  • Select adaptations with demonstrated effectiveness


Step 7 evaluate student progress

Step 7: Evaluate Student Progress

  • Evaluate strategy effectiveness

    • Track through:

      • Grades

      • Observations

      • Analysis of student work

      • Portfolios

      • Performance assessments

      • Teacher, parent, student ratings


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