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Approaches to dialogue. Dialogue Games. Part I:. Peter Kühnlein. Dialogue Games. Characteristic of dialogue games approaches: Dialogue is viewed as consisting of pairs or sequences of utterances that can be seen as moves in a game. Dialogue Games. Approach in case:

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Approaches to dialogue

Dialogue Games

Part I:

Peter Kühnlein


Dialogue Games

Characteristic of dialogue games approaches:

Dialogue is viewed as consisting of pairs or sequences of utterances that

can be seen as moves in a game.


Dialogue Games

Approach in case:

Levin, J.A. & Moore, J.A., 1977: Dialogue Games: Meta-communication

Structures for Natural Language Interaction, ISI/RR-77-53, USC

Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90291


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization

  • can consist of multi-sentential units


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization

  • can consist of multi-sentential units

  • belong to speaker‘s knowledge


Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.


Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances


Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances

Example:

Person A: Do you have a match?


Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances

Example:

Person A: Do you have a match?

Person B: Sorry, I don´t smoke.


Dialogue Games

Motivation

Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others

    • We know which responses to expect.


Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others

    • We know which responses to expect.

  • Sets of knowledge structures


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

called dialogue-games (DGs).

They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

the use of communication to achieve goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language, especially indirect language use


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms:

  • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms:

  • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in

  • Language use is a way of pursuing goals that speakers currently hold,

  • and the knowledge of participants‘ goals hence a central part of DGs


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution.


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution.

  • (Problem solving)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to

  • perform it


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to

  • perform it

  • (Action seeking)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to

  • learn it


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to

  • learn it

  • (Information seeking)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts

  • with her/him in order to find out


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts

  • with her/him in order to find out

  • (Information probing)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart

  • information


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart

  • information

  • (Instructing)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey

  • that unhappiness


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey

  • that unhappiness

  • (Griping)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

Every DG consists of three parts:


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping):

  • Individuals involved & subject vary across instances of a particular pattern


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping):

  • DGs‘ parameters (roles, topic) have specific values for each particular dialogue


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states,


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states,

  • and the topic


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, in DGT: parameter

  • and the topic specifications


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, parameter specifications

  • and the topic remain constant throughout

  • the dialogue


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, parameter specifications

  • and the topic are known to participants


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time

• mutually complementary for participants


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time

• mutually complementary for participants

contain expected sequences of intermediate states; these occur

during instances of a particular pattern


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance

• without acceptance no pursuit of game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance

• without acceptance no pursuit of game

• performed in different ways, often implicit


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Indicated by agreement, approval or by pursuing game


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation, ignoring


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation, ignoring, interruption


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: spontaneous termination by

  • a) goal satisfaction


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: spontaneous termination by

  • a) goal satisfaction

  • b) unconditional goal failure


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says

  • • importance of a speaker´s goals for language use


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says

  • • importance of a speaker´s goals for language use

  • • interaction of these goals with the speaker´s knowledge of his hearer


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures

• allow to infer goals for generation of utterances


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures

• allow to infer goals for generation of utterances

• represent particular interactions, whereby the type of interaction is

determined by goals of participants


User

sends requests to

operator

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

User

receives info from

operator


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

direct communication by typing on terminals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural in the sense that there are no artificially elicitated data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues

    • self-transcribed


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues

    • self-transcribed

    • Goal pursuit methods and structures resemble those in voice dialogue and

    • face-to-face interaction.


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The components are:

>DS1: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/ EXPECTED-1 PAST)))

>DS2: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/EXPECTED-2 PAST ) NOT ))

>TS: ((( HELPER WANT ( HELPEE KNOW ACTION/NEW)) AND

(( HELPEE PERFORM ACTION/NEW ) CAUSE ACTION/EXPECTED-2))

> ((DS1 AND DS2) THEN TS)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The components are:

>DS1: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/ EXPECTED-1 PAST)))

>DS2: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/EXPECTED-2 PAST ) NOT ))

>TS: ((( HELPER WANT ( HELPEE KNOW ACTION/NEW)) AND

(( HELPEE PERFORM ACTION/NEW ) CAUSE ACTION/EXPECTED-2))

> ((DS1 AND DS2) THEN TS)

(DS, the initial „diagnosis“ stage, specifies a „context-violation“ pattern; TS is the „treatment“ stage)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

A0005(HELPEE WANT (HELPEE PERFORM TASK))

pred

WANT

agent

HELPEE

prop

A0004

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


parameter

HELPEE

parameter

HELPER

parameter

TASK

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations

HELPING


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements.


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements. This structure represents

conventional knowledge about the participants and the topic of a helping

interaction. […]


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements. This structure represents

conventional knowledge about the participants and the topic of a helping

interaction. […] This knowledge about parameters is used in several ways -

to select a particular DG, to initiate a DG, to generate expectations, and to

terminate a DG.“ (p.13)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation

  • conduct


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation

  • conduct

  • termination


Dialogue Games

WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

entities: activations

work semi-autonomously

parallel and concurrently

MODIFIES

INFORMS

LONG-TERM MEMORYknowledge before dialogue starts

  • Dialogue Games

  • parameters

  • parameter specification

  • components

  • tactical goals

  • speaker / hearer

  • Linguistic knowledge

  • words / semantic

  • representations

  • case frames

  • (verbs, predicates)

  • World

  • knowledge

  • Objects

  • Processes

  • Concepts

Rules of

inference,

evidence

Cognitive

state of

partner


WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

activated concepts

FUNCTIONS

in toto:

state of

comprehension

and focus

partial and temporal

processing results

modelling of

implicit

communication

comprehension of

rest of dialogue

DG termination

PROTEUS

spreading activation

system

nominated DGs

accepted DG

MATCH / DEDUCE

production system

- partial match

- plausible inference

ultimate DG

DIALOGUE GAME

PROCESSOR

investigates nominated DGs

eliminates conflicting DGs

LONG-TERM MEMORY


WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

activated concepts

FUNCTIONS

in toto:

state of

comprehension

and focus

partial and temporal

processing results

modelling of

implicit

communication

comprehension of

rest of dialogue

DG termination

PROTEUS

spreading activation

system

nominated DGs

accepted DG

MATCH / DEDUCE

production system

- partial match

- plausible inference

ultimate DG

DIALOGUE GAME

PROCESSOR

investigates nominated DGs

eliminates conflicting DGs

LONG-TERM MEMORY


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication:

  • • during comprehension process: generation of expectations

  • (used to resolve ambiguities); directing inferences


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication:

  • • during comprehension process: generation of expectations

  • (used to resolve ambiguities); directing inferences

  • • they focus the comprehension process wrt goals a speaker is pursuing with

  • his utterance


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • One central issue for comprehension is to identify those speaker´s goals

  • that are motivating his utterances


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • Meta-goal of comprehension (inherent in the model):

  • „To comprehend an utterance is to find some previously known goal of the

  • speaker which this utterance can be seen as furthering.“ (p.24)


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • Meta-goal of comprehension (inherent in the model):

  • „To comprehend an utterance is to find some previously known goal of the

  • speaker which this utterance can be seen as furthering.“ (p.24)

  • This is used to limit explosion of possible inferences  focusing of effort

  • implicit in DG model


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:

• assertions of the speaker‘s own lack of knowledge


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:

• assertions of the speaker‘s own lack of knowledge

• questions about the other person‘s knowledge etc.


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

termination of DG by change of parameter specifications


Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

  • Functions of DGs:

  • initiate another DG

  • establish new DG parameters

  • termination of DG by change of parameter specifications

    • fulfilling one component goal of an open game generates expectations

    • about next component


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction

Differences:

• DGs are bi-lateral actions & by definition interaction between two people

Speech acts are unilateral actions


Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction

Differences:

• DGs are bi-lateral actions & by definition interaction between two people

Speech acts are unilateral actions

• DGs are multi-sentential units, they encompass multiple utterances and turns

of a dialogue

Speech acts consist of single utterances


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