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Approaches to dialogue. Dialogue Games. Part I:. Peter Kühnlein. Dialogue Games. Characteristic of dialogue games approaches: Dialogue is viewed as consisting of pairs or sequences of utterances that can be seen as moves in a game. Dialogue Games. Approach in case:

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Dialogue games

Approaches to dialogue

Dialogue Games

Part I:

Peter Kühnlein


Dialogue games1

Dialogue Games

Characteristic of dialogue games approaches:

Dialogue is viewed as consisting of pairs or sequences of utterances that

can be seen as moves in a game.


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Approach in case:

Levin, J.A. & Moore, J.A., 1977: Dialogue Games: Meta-communication

Structures for Natural Language Interaction, ISI/RR-77-53, USC

Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90291


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring


Dialogue games2

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns


Dialogue games3

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization


Dialogue games4

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization

  • can consist of multi-sentential units


Dialogue games5

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to

  • established patterns.

  • These have the following characteristics: They

  • are frequently recurring

  • span several turns

  • exhibit goal-oriented organization

  • can consist of multi-sentential units

  • belong to speaker‘s knowledge


Dialogue games6

Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.


Dialogue games7

Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances


Dialogue games8

Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances

Example:

Person A: Do you have a match?


Dialogue games9

Dialogue Games

Motivation

There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the

possibility to comprehend indirect utterances

Example:

Person A: Do you have a match?

Person B: Sorry, I don´t smoke.


Dialogue games10

Dialogue Games

Motivation

Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find


Dialogue games11

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language


Dialogue games12

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“


Dialogue games13

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour


Dialogue games14

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others


Dialogue games15

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others

    • We know which responses to expect.


Dialogue games16

Dialogue Games

Motivation

  • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  • conventional knowledge about language

  • „world knowledge“

  • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

    • We achieve goals through interaction with others

    • We know which responses to expect.

  • Sets of knowledge structures


Dialogue games17

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

called dialogue-games (DGs).

They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

the use of communication to achieve goals


Dialogue games18

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language, especially indirect language use


Dialogue games19

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms:

  • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in


Dialogue games20

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms:

  • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in

  • Language use is a way of pursuing goals that speakers currently hold,

  • and the knowledge of participants‘ goals hence a central part of DGs


Dialogue games21

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants


Dialogue games22

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution.


Dialogue games23

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution.

  • (Problem solving)


Dialogue games24

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to

  • perform it


Dialogue games25

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to

  • perform it

  • (Action seeking)


Dialogue games26

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to

  • learn it


Dialogue games27

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to

  • learn it

  • (Information seeking)


Dialogue games28

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts

  • with her/him in order to find out


Dialogue games29

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts

  • with her/him in order to find out

  • (Information probing)


Dialogue games30

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart

  • information


Dialogue games31

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart

  • information

  • (Instructing)


Dialogue games32

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey

  • that unhappiness


Dialogue games33

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games - intuition

  • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are

  • called dialogue-games (DGs).

  • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and

  • the use of communication to achieve goals

  • A dialogue comprehension model is developed:

  • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of

  • language:

  • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the

  • participants

  • Example:

  • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey

  • that unhappiness

  • (Griping)


Dialogue games34

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

Every DG consists of three parts:


Dialogue games35

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters


Dialogue games36

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles)


Dialogue games37

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)


Dialogue games38

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications


Dialogue games39

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals


Dialogue games40

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components


Dialogue games41

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game


Dialogue games42

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues


Dialogue games43

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping)


Dialogue games44

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping):

  • Individuals involved & subject vary across instances of a particular pattern


Dialogue games45

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues:

  • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by

  • same DG (e.g. Helping):

  • DGs‘ parameters (roles, topic) have specific values for each particular dialogue


Dialogue games46

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by


Dialogue games47

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals


Dialogue games48

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states


Dialogue games49

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,


Dialogue games50

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states,


Dialogue games51

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states,

  • and the topic


Dialogue games52

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, in DGT: parameter

  • and the topic specifications


Dialogue games53

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, parameter specifications

  • and the topic remain constant throughout

  • the dialogue


Dialogue games54

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – parameter specification

  • Every DG consists of three parts:

  • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  • sets of participants‘ goals

  • individual knowledge states

  • Each type of NL dialogue can be described wrt

  • goals,

  • knowledge states, parameter specifications

  • and the topic are known to participants


Dialogue games55

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components


Dialogue games56

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs


Dialogue games57

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles


Dialogue games58

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time


Dialogue games59

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time

• mutually complementary for participants


Dialogue games60

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – more formal – components

represent systematically changing aspects of DGs

specify subgoals for participants‘ roles

• partially ordered in time

• mutually complementary for participants

contain expected sequences of intermediate states; these occur

during instances of a particular pattern


Dialogue games61

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games


Dialogue games62

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game


Dialogue games63

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game


Dialogue games64

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game


Dialogue games65

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration


Dialogue games66

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance


Dialogue games67

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance

• without acceptance no pursuit of game


Dialogue games68

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

Bidding a certain game

• identifies game

• indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

• identifies intended parameter configuration

Typical response: Acceptance

• without acceptance no pursuit of game

• performed in different ways, often implicit


Dialogue games69

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid


Dialogue games70

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values


Dialogue games71

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game


Dialogue games72

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role


Dialogue games73

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Indicated by agreement, approval or by pursuing game


Dialogue games74

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection


Dialogue games75

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation


Dialogue games76

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation, ignoring


Dialogue games77

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: rejection, negotiation, ignoring, interruption


Dialogue games78

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: spontaneous termination by

  • a) goal satisfaction


Dialogue games79

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games – playing the games

  • Bidding a certain game

  • • identifies game

  • • indicates bidder‘s interest in pursuing the game

  • • identifies intended parameter configuration

  • Typical response: Acceptance

  • • without acceptance no pursuit of game

  • • performed in different ways, often implicit

  • Acceptance of the bid of a game accomplishes:

  • recognition of bid

  • recognition of particular game and parameter values

  • agreement to pursue game

  • assumption of acceptor´s role

  • Alternatives: spontaneous termination by

  • a) goal satisfaction

  • b) unconditional goal failure


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Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model


Dialogue games81

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:


Dialogue games82

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?


Dialogue games83

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?


Dialogue games84

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?


Dialogue games85

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says


Dialogue games86

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says

  • • importance of a speaker´s goals for language use


Dialogue games87

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

  • The Dialogue Game Model (DGM) attempts to answer the following questions:

  • What is the knowledge represented within the definition of a particular

  • Dialogue-game?

  • 2. How is this knowledge used to model the receptive acts of dialogue

  • participants?

  • 3. What sort of machinery does it take to support this model?

  • The focus of the model is on

  • • the role of speaker´s motivations in structuring what he says

  • • importance of a speaker´s goals for language use

  • • interaction of these goals with the speaker´s knowledge of his hearer


Dialogue games88

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures


Dialogue games89

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures

• allow to infer goals for generation of utterances


Dialogue games90

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model

The DGM is intended to

• specify processes for the comprehension of utterances in dialogues,

using agents‘ knowledge structures

• allow to infer goals for generation of utterances

• represent particular interactions, whereby the type of interaction is

determined by goals of participants


Dialogue games91

User

sends requests to

operator

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:


Dialogue games92

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

User

receives info from

operator


Dialogue games93

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;


Dialogue games94

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

The DGM is built upon the following data:

TENEX system dialogues:

interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

direct communication by typing on terminals


Dialogue games95

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural


Dialogue games96

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural in the sense that there are no artificially elicitated data


Dialogue games97

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased


Dialogue games98

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues


Dialogue games99

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues

    • self-transcribed


Dialogue games100

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data

  • The DGM is built upon the following data:

  • TENEX system dialogues:

  • interactions of user and system operator via LINK mechanism;

  • direct communication by typing on terminals

    • natural

    • unbiased

    • without non-verbal cues

    • self-transcribed

    • Goal pursuit methods and structures resemble those in voice dialogue and

    • face-to-face interaction.


Dialogue games101

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games102

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games103

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games104

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games105

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games106

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games107

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games108

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the data


Dialogue games109

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network


Dialogue games110

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements


Dialogue games111

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function


Dialogue games112

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)


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Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK


Dialogue games114

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue games115

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The components are:

>DS1: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/ EXPECTED-1 PAST)))

>DS2: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/EXPECTED-2 PAST ) NOT ))

>TS: ((( HELPER WANT ( HELPEE KNOW ACTION/NEW)) AND

(( HELPEE PERFORM ACTION/NEW ) CAUSE ACTION/EXPECTED-2))

> ((DS1 AND DS2) THEN TS)


Dialogue games116

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The components are:

>DS1: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/ EXPECTED-1 PAST)))

>DS2: ( HELPEE WANT ( HELPER KNOW ( HELPEE PERCEIVE

ACTION/EXPECTED-2 PAST ) NOT ))

>TS: ((( HELPER WANT ( HELPEE KNOW ACTION/NEW)) AND

(( HELPEE PERFORM ACTION/NEW ) CAUSE ACTION/EXPECTED-2))

> ((DS1 AND DS2) THEN TS)

(DS, the initial „diagnosis“ stage, specifies a „context-violation“ pattern; TS is the „treatment“ stage)


Dialogue games117

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function


Dialogue games118

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network


Dialogue games119

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue games120

pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue games121

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue games122

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue games123

pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue games124

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

Example: DEFINEDG(HELPING)

The parameters are:

>HELPEE, HELPER, TASK

The parameter specifications are:

>HELPEE ISA PERSON

>HELPEE WANTS ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>(( HELPEE ABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )) NOT )

>HELPEE PERMITTED ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK )

>HELPER ISA PERSON

>HELPER WILLING ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))

>HELPER ABLE ( HELPER ENABLE ( HELPEE PERFORM TASK ))


Dialogue games125

pred

PERFORM

agent

HELPEE

object

TASK

A0004(HELPEE PERFORM TASK)

A0005(HELPEE WANT (HELPEE PERFORM TASK))

pred

WANT

agent

HELPEE

prop

A0004

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations


Dialogue games126

parameter

HELPEE

parameter

HELPER

parameter

TASK

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

A semantic network is a set of nodes interconnected by relations

HELPING


Dialogue games127

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network


Dialogue games128

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements.


Dialogue games129

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements. This structure represents

conventional knowledge about the participants and the topic of a helping

interaction. […]


Dialogue games130

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game model – the representational format

DGs are represented in a semantic network

The implementation is by statements, which are

• taken in by the DEFINEDG function

• and stored in a semantic network

„The parameter specification predicates create an interrelated structure with

the Parameter nodes as central elements. This structure represents

conventional knowledge about the participants and the topic of a helping

interaction. […] This knowledge about parameters is used in several ways -

to select a particular DG, to initiate a DG, to generate expectations, and to

terminate a DG.“ (p.13)


Dialogue games131

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing


Dialogue games132

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)


Dialogue games133

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:


Dialogue games134

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination


Dialogue games135

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition


Dialogue games136

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation


Dialogue games137

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation

  • conduct


Dialogue games138

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing

  • Each DG „can bee seen as a problem solving operator, selected to accomplish

  • some high level goal (represented in the Parameter Specifications), and then

  • specifying (through its Components) a set of subgoals to pursue.“ (S.17)

  • Dialogue assimilation to DG in five stages:

  • nomination

  • recognition

  • instantiation

  • conduct

  • termination


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

entities: activations

work semi-autonomously

parallel and concurrently

MODIFIES

INFORMS

LONG-TERM MEMORYknowledge before dialogue starts

  • Dialogue Games

  • parameters

  • parameter specification

  • components

  • tactical goals

  • speaker / hearer

  • Linguistic knowledge

  • words / semantic

  • representations

  • case frames

  • (verbs, predicates)

  • World

  • knowledge

  • Objects

  • Processes

  • Concepts

Rules of

inference,

evidence

Cognitive

state of

partner


Dialogue games

WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

activated concepts

FUNCTIONS

in toto:

state of

comprehension

and focus

partial and temporal

processing results

modelling of

implicit

communication

comprehension of

rest of dialogue

DG termination

PROTEUS

spreading activation

system

nominated DGs

accepted DG

MATCH / DEDUCE

production system

- partial match

- plausible inference

ultimate DG

DIALOGUE GAME

PROCESSOR

investigates nominated DGs

eliminates conflicting DGs

LONG-TERM MEMORY


Dialogue games

WORKSPACE

PROCESSORS

activated concepts

FUNCTIONS

in toto:

state of

comprehension

and focus

partial and temporal

processing results

modelling of

implicit

communication

comprehension of

rest of dialogue

DG termination

PROTEUS

spreading activation

system

nominated DGs

accepted DG

MATCH / DEDUCE

production system

- partial match

- plausible inference

ultimate DG

DIALOGUE GAME

PROCESSOR

investigates nominated DGs

eliminates conflicting DGs

LONG-TERM MEMORY


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication:

  • • during comprehension process: generation of expectations

  • (used to resolve ambiguities); directing inferences


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • DG structures allow for abbreviated communication:

  • • during comprehension process: generation of expectations

  • (used to resolve ambiguities); directing inferences

  • • they focus the comprehension process wrt goals a speaker is pursuing with

  • his utterance


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • One central issue for comprehension is to identify those speaker´s goals

  • that are motivating his utterances


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • Meta-goal of comprehension (inherent in the model):

  • „To comprehend an utterance is to find some previously known goal of the

  • speaker which this utterance can be seen as furthering.“ (p.24)


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing - comprehension

  • DGT implements some generalizations about language comprehension:

  • Comprehension of utterances involves association of particular functions

    • imputation of goals

  • participants‘ goals underlie dialogue behaviour

  • speakers hold multiple goals; these are related in highly constrained ways

  • participants‘ goals are closely related; constrains co-occurrence of goals

  • participants use knowledge about goal structures for implicit communication

  • changes of dialogue „topic“ are side effects of changes of participants‘ goals

  • indirect communication depends on associating functions with utterances

  • Meta-goal of comprehension (inherent in the model):

  • „To comprehend an utterance is to find some previously known goal of the

  • speaker which this utterance can be seen as furthering.“ (p.24)

  • This is used to limit explosion of possible inferences  focusing of effort

  • implicit in DG model


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:

• assertions of the speaker‘s own lack of knowledge


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

Ex.: An utterance establishing parameters of INFO-SEEK DG can serve as

indirect request:

• assertions of the speaker‘s own lack of knowledge

• questions about the other person‘s knowledge etc.


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

Functions of DGs:

initiate another DG

establish new DG parameters

termination of DG by change of parameter specifications


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue game processing – comprehension – indirect use of language

  • Functions of DGs:

  • initiate another DG

  • establish new DG parameters

  • termination of DG by change of parameter specifications

    • fulfilling one component goal of an open game generates expectations

    • about next component


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction

Differences:

• DGs are bi-lateral actions & by definition interaction between two people

Speech acts are unilateral actions


Dialogue games

Dialogue Games

Dialogue games and Speech acts

Similarities:

• Interpretation of individual utterances uses words of utterance and context

• Both depend on dialogue participants‘ knowledge especially wrt. topic of

interaction

Differences:

• DGs are bi-lateral actions & by definition interaction between two people

Speech acts are unilateral actions

• DGs are multi-sentential units, they encompass multiple utterances and turns

of a dialogue

Speech acts consist of single utterances


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