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Module 23. Studying and building memories. What type of memory is it? . Recall (fill in the blank) Recognition (multiple choice) Relearning – learning things more quickly the second time – it comes back to you quicker than it took to originally learn it.

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module 23

Module 23

Studying and building memories

what type of memory is it
What type of memory is it?
  • Recall (fill in the blank)
  • Recognition (multiple choice)
  • Relearning – learning things more quickly the second time – it comes back to you quicker than it took to originally learn it.
  • Encoding – put it in a language you can understand
  • Storage – filing it away for future retrieval/use
  • Retrieval – pulling the information out to use it
slide3

Sensory memory (fleeting)

  • Short-term memory
  • Long-term memory
  • Working memory (linking new info with previously stored information – like an active desktop
  • *************************************
  • Types of memory (p. 316)
  • Space – remembering where on a page info is located
  • Time – remembering sequence of events – retrace steps
  • Frequency – remembering that something has happened repeatedly today without consciously noting it at the time.
encoding and effortful processing
Encoding and effortful processing -
  • How much can be stored in short term memory? Approximately 5-7 bits of information.
  • About 7 digits
  • About six letters
  • About 5 words
  • Obviously working memory capacity varies.
  • Sensory Memory (momentary image or echo of sound) feeds working memory.
  • Iconic Memory
  • Fleeting sensory memory of visual stimuli.
  • Echoic Memory
  • fleeting memory for auditory stimuli.
hey pay attention to this
Hey – pay attention to this!
  • Whatever our age, our brains do a better job – work more efficiently – when focused, without distractions, one task at a time.
  • (I think I have mentioned this before – be sure, you will hear it again!)
  • Remember FISH?
effortful processing strategies
Effortful Processing Strategies -
  • Chunking – organizing information into familiar, manageable units – it is more effective when personally meaningful.
  • Mnemonics – using imagery – mental pictures – better when concrete/visualizable rather than nonsense/abstract.
  • Hierarchies - grouped into categories – outlines – headings & details
  • Distributed Practice – spacing effect vs. massed practice (cramming) – repeated self-testing – (testing effect)
shallow processing vs deep processing
Shallow processing vs. Deep processing
  • Sound vs. Meaning
  • More meaningful processing – better chance of retention
  • Make the material personally meaningful – (I try to help here.)
  • You can do this as you read/study – relate it to your own experience
  • Self-reference effect is particularly true for Western cultures.
  • The point to remember here: The amount remembered depends both on the time spent learning and on your making it meaningful for deep processing.
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