Evolution and biodiversity origins niches and adaptation
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Evolution and Biodiversity: Origins, Niches, and Adaptation. G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s Environmental Science 10 th Edition Chapter 5. Key Concepts. Origins of life. Evolution and Evolutionary processes. Ecological niches. Species formation. Species extinction.

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Evolution and Biodiversity: Origins, Niches, and Adaptation

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Evolution and biodiversity origins niches and adaptation

Evolution and Biodiversity: Origins, Niches, and Adaptation

G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s

Environmental Science

10th Edition

Chapter 5


Key concepts

Key Concepts

  • Origins of life

  • Evolution and Evolutionary processes

  • Ecological niches

  • Species formation

  • Species extinction


Earth just right resilient planet

Earth: Just-right Resilient Planet

  • Temperature

  • Liquid water

  • Rotation

  • Size and gravity

  • Ozone layer

  • Life

Fig. 5-1, p. 92

DO NOT POST TO INTERNET


Origins and early evolution of life

Origins and Early Evolution of Life

  • Chemical evolution

  • Biological evolution

Fig. 5-2 p. 93


Evolution and biodiversity origins niches and adaptation

Modern humans

(Homo sapiens)

appear about

2 seconds

before midnight

Recorded human

history begins

1/4 second

before midnight

Age of mammals

Age of reptiles

midnight

Insects and amphibians invade the land

Origin of life

(3.6–3.8 billion

years ago)

Plants invade the land

First fossil

record of

animals

Plants begin

invading

land

noon

Evolution and expansion of life

Biological Evolution Over Geologic Time

Fig. 5-3, p. 94


Biological evolution

Biological Evolution

  • Evolution

  • Theory of Evolution

  • Microevolution

  • Macroevolution


Microevolution

Microevolution

  • Gene pool

  • Alleles

  • Mutations

  • Natural selection


Natural selection

Natural Selection

  • Differential reproduction

  • Adaptive trait (adaptation)

  • Artificial selection

  • Coevolution


Peppered moths and adaptation

Peppered Moths and Adaptation

Fig. 5-4, p. 96


Directional natural selection

Directional Natural Selection

Natural

selection

Average

New average

Previous

average

Snail coloration

best adapted

to conditions

Number of individuals

Number of individuals

Average shifts

Coloration of snails

Coloration of snails

Proportion of light-colored

snails in population increases

Figure 5-5a, p. 97


Stabilizing natural selection

Stabilizing Natural Selection

Natural

selection

Dark snails

eliminated

Light snails

eliminated

Snails with

extreme

coloration are

eliminated

Number of individuals

Number of individuals

Coloration of snails

Coloration of snails

Average remains the same,

but the number of individuals with

intermediate coloration increases

Fig. 5-5b, p. 97


Diversifying natural selection

Diversifying Natural Selection

Intermediate-colored snails

are selected against

Snails with light and dark

colors dominate

Natural

selection

Light

coloration

is favored

Dark

coloration

is favored

Number of individuals

Number of individuals

Coloration of snails

Coloration of snails

Number of individuals

with light and dark coloration

increases, and the number with

intermediate coloration decreases

Fig. 5-5c, p. 97


Ecological niches and adaptation

Ecological Niches and Adaptation

  • Ecological niche

  • Fundamental niche

  • Habitat

  • Realized niche

Fig. 5-6 p. 98


Broad and narrow niches and the limits of adaptation

Broad and Narrow Niches and the Limits of Adaptation

  • Generalist species

  • Specialist species

  • Limits of Adaptation

Refer to Spotlight p. 99


Specialized feeding niches for birds

Specialized Feeding Niches for Birds

Herring gull is a

tireless scavenger

Brown pelican dives for fish,

which it locates from the air

Black skimmer

seizes small fish

at water surface

Ruddy turnstone searches

under shells and pebbles for small invertebrates

Dowitcher probes deeply

into mud in search of

snails, marine worms,

and small crustaceans

Avocet sweeps bill through

mud and surface water in

search of small crustaceans,

insects, and seeds

Scaup and other

diving ducks feed on

mollusks, crustaceans,

and aquatic vegetation

Flamingo

feeds on

minute

organisms

in mud

Knot (a sandpiper) picks up

worms and small crustaceans

left by receding tide

Oystercatcher feeds on

clams, mussels, and

other shellfish into which

it pries its narrow beak

Piping plover feeds

on insects and tiny

crustaceans on

sandy beaches

Louisiana heron wades into

water to seize small fish

Fig. 5-7, p. 100-101


Misconceptions about evolution

Misconceptions about Evolution

  • “Survival of the fittest”

  • “Progress to perfection”


Speciation extinction and biodiversity

Speciation, Extinction, and Biodiversity

  • Speciation

  • Geographic isolation

  • Reproductive isolation

Fig. 5-8, p.100


Factors affecting speciation and extinction

Factors Affecting Speciation and Extinction

  • Plate tectonics

  • Climate changes over time

  • Natural catastrophes

  • Human Impacts


Extinction and recovery

Extinction and Recovery

  • Background extinction

  • Mass extinction

  • Mass depletion

  • Adaptive radiation

  • Human Impacts


Continental drift plate tectonics the breakup of pangaea

“Continental Drift” (Plate Tectonics): The Breakup of Pangaea

LAURASIA

LAURASIA

PANGAEA

PANGAEA

120°

80°

40°

80°

120°

120°

80°

80°

120°

GONDWANALAND

GONDWANALAND

135 million years ago

225 million years ago

NORTH AMERICA

NORTH AMERICA

EURASIA

AFRICA

120°

80°

120°

120°

40°

120°

INDIA

SOUTH

AMERICA

MADA-

GASCAR

MADA-

GASCAR

AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA

ANTARCTICA

ANTARCTICA

65 million years ago

Present

Fig. 5-9, p. 101


Impact of speciation and extinction on biodiversity

Impact of Speciation and Extinction on Biodiversity

“Biodiversity = Speciation – Extinction”

Human impacts on extinction and biodiversity

Recovery of biodiversity

Genetic engineering


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