Temperature, Heat, and Thermal Energy. What is Temperature?. Particles of matter are in constant motion. This motion relates directly to the state of matter of the object (solids, liquids, or gases).
Particles of matter are in constant motion. This motion relates directly to the state of matter of the object (solids, liquids, or gases).
Temperature affects how fast these particles move. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move. Moving particles possess kinetic energy.
Temperature is defined as the average kinetic energy of the particles of an object.
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
GET SOME FAST POINTS!!
Write the Definitions for Potential and
In Your Own Words!
20 SECONDS – GO!!!
Kinetic Energyis the energy of a moving object!
Thermal Energy is the sum total of all of the energy of the particles of an object.
Thermal energy and temperature are related, though DIFFERENT.
Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the particles of an object.
Thermal energy is the total amount of energy of the particles of an object.
?? A bathtub full of water at 100F has more thermal energy than a thimble of water at 100F.
More water at the same temperature = more thermal energy!!
Less water at same temperature = less thermal energy
Heat is really the amount of thermal energy being passed from one object to another.
Heat travels in a specific direction—ALWAYS from the warmer object to the cooler object.
So, if heat is the amount of thermal energy, then the amount of heat an object has tells me how much kinetic energy the object has.
Ice = cold temp and very little movement, so very little heat/kinetic energy/thermal energy of its particles!!!
Fire = high temp and a lot of movement, so high heat/kinetic/thermal energy!!!
Movement can keep the temperature constant or increase/decrease it. Therefore, temperature is directly related to heat and heat is the amount of thermal energy passed to an object!!!
Need to Know:
It is important to know the freezing and boiling points of water.
Absolute zero refers to the temperature at which all movement of particles in an object would stop!
Do the particles move faster in a solid, liquid or gas? Why do you think this?
Explain your answers in writing!
Click following Link to see movement of particles at different temperatures:
In cold objects, the molecules move slowly and in a hot object the molecules move faster!
Particles/atoms/molecules move fastest in a gas!
3 MUST KNOWS!!!!!
Conduction – throughdirect contact!
Convection – through a gas or liquid , moves in currents!
Radiation – electromagnetic waves through
empty space, no medium required!
Bulb thermometers rely on the simple principle that a liquid changes its volume relative to its temperature. Liquids take up less space when they are cold and more space when they are warm.
(This same principle works for gases too, and is the basis for how a hot air balloon works).
All bulb thermometers use a fairly large bulb and a narrow tube to accentuate the change in volume.
So as heat is transferred, the movement—or thermal energy—of the particles that make up the liquid in the bulb increases, and it can only move up! As amount of heat decreases, the movement of particles decreases, so liquid moves back down!
A Little More Information!
Warm-blooded, cold-blooded, and human body systems related to temperature
Thermal imaging of boy
Thermal imaging of birds
(Click here to learn more.)
This is a form of Negative Feedback.
Since mammals and birds can maintain a constant internal body temperature, they can actively live just about anywhere!
As a result of being more susceptible to infection, they are inclined to have a better immunity to diseases.
Given that the majority of energy used is in generating heat, warm-blooded animals must consume large amounts of food.
Also, because of their high body temperatures, it is easier for parasites, viruses, and bacteria to infect warm-blooded animals.Warm Blooded Review:
Cold-blooded creatures take on the temperature of their surroundings. They are hot when their environment is hot and cold when their environment is cold. In hot environments, cold-blooded animals can have blood that is much warmer than warm-blooded animals. Cold-blooded animals are much more active in warm environments and are very sluggish in cold environments. This is because their muscle activity depends on chemical reactions which run quickly when it is hot and slowly when it is cold. A cold-blooded animal can convert much more of its food into body mass compared with a warm-blooded animal.