Why factors influence decision to migrate?. Ravenstein —Laws of Migration—based on studies of internal migration in England:. Every migration flow generates a counter-migration. The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances choose big-city destinations.
What are categories of migrants?
"In the morning it was very cold, with about an inch of snow on the ground. ..the clouds cleared, leaving the towering peaks in full view, covered as far as the eye could reach with snow. This sight made us almost despair of ever entering the long-sought valley of the Sacramento; but we pushed on as fast as our failing cattle could haul. At last we reached the foot of the main ridge. The weather was clear in the early part of the night; but a large circle around the moon indicated, an approaching storm. Daylight came only to confirm our worst fears. The snow was falling fast on that terrible summit over which we yet had to make our way. We set out early to make an effort to cross.
We traveled two miles--the snow increasing in depth all the way. At last, it was up to the axle of the wagons. We concluded to push forward; but it was impossible to advance; because of the depth of the snow, and next, because we could not find the road; so we hitched to the wagons and returned to the valley again. We took possession of a cabin and built a fire in it. It cleared off in the night, and this gave us hopes; we were so little acquainted with the country as to believe that the rain in the valley was rain on the mountain also, and that it would beat down the snow that we might possibly go over. In this we were fatally mistaken."
Major Immigration periods-US1. 17th/early 18th cent -English and slaves2. 1840s-50s—Northern and Western Europe—Germans and Irish3. late 1880s-90s —Germans, Irish, Scandinavians4. early 1900s —Southern and Eastern Europe5. 1950s-present—Asia/Latin America
LDCs-urban slums-internal migration from rural to urban areas
Political vs. Economic refugees