Chapter 14
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Chapter 14. Discussion and Review. Mongol Empire. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:.

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Discussion and Review

Mongol Empire

Mongolian Steppes

Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”

Mongol Invasions

Mongol Warriors

Mongol Archer

Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c

Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c

Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:

  • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.

  • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.

  • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.

  • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.

  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!

  • Mongol Nobleman, late 13c

    Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c

    Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c

    Yuan Empire (1279-1368)

    • Khubilai Khan

      • Declared Great Khan in 1265

      • founded the Yuan empire in 1271

      • Moved capital to Beijing

      • Incorporated Chinese traditions

        • Confucian laws and public policies

    • Government

      • Western Asian Muslims as official

      • Hierarchical system

      • Legally defined status groups

      • Confucians had a weak role

      • merchants and doctors elevated

    Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.

    • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]

      • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]

        • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 

        • No Chinese in top govt. posts.

        • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.

        • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.

          • Marco Polo

    Marco Polo (1254-1324)

    • A Venetian merchant.

    • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295

      • “Black Stones” [coal]

      • Gunpowder.

      • Noodles.

    Marco Polo’s Travels

    Yuan Dynasty

    • Economy / Trade

      • Tax farming

      • Used paper money and copper coins

      • Revitalized trade

    • Cultural Diffusion

      • Encouraged sharing and exchange of ideas

      • Medical information, Science, Mathematics, warfare, etc.

    Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics

    China’s last native imperial dynasty!

    Ming Dynasty - 1368 – 1644

    • Closed borders to foreigners

    • severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia

    • moved capital to Nanjing; later moved backed to Beijing

    • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.


    How Did the Ming Restore the Chinese Government…

    • Restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous than ever

    • Revived Confucian learning

    • Repaired the canal system that linked regions and made trade easier

    • Supported a revival of arts and literature

    The Forbidden City: China’s New Capital

    Revived the Civil Service Exam

    Ming Cultural Revolution

    • Printing & Literacy

      • Cheap, popular books:

        • woodblock printing.

        • cheap paper.

      • Examination system.

      • Leads to explosion in literacy. 

      • Leads to further popularization of the commercial market.

    • Culture & Art

      • Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:

        • Literature.

        • Painting.

        • Ceramics.

        • Opera.

    Ming Silver Market

    • Spanish Silver Convoys

      • Triangle route:

        • Philippines to China to Japan.

      • Silver floods Chinese Market:

        • Causes devaluation of currency & recession

        • Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas.

        • Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe

        • Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe.

      • Helps fund conquest of New World 

      • Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.

    Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E.

    • Golden Age of Chinese Art

      • Moderation

      • Softness

      • Gracefulness

    • Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.

    Ming Emperor Tai Zu(r. 1368-1398)

    The Tribute System

    Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

    • Ming “Treasure Fleet”

      • Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide

    • China’s “Columbus?” 


    Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages

    • First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men].

    • Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip].

    • Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men].

    • Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men].

    • Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419

    • Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422

      • Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work.

    • Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433

      • Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam

      • 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.

    Zheng He’s Mission

    • Mission

      • To reestablish trade links with the Middle East

      • Bring Southeast Asian countries and their overseas Chinese population under its influence

    • Accomplishments

      • Acquired Ming tributary states

      • 50 new tributaries

      • Overall not very profitable

    Shape of the World Video Clip…

    • 1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.

    Why did Ming emperors turn their back on overseas exploration?

    • Confucian scholars had little interest in overseas ventures. To them, Chinese civilization was superior to all others.

    • The Chinese wanted to preserve ancient traditions, which they saw as the source of stability.

    • Fleets of seagoing ships were costly and did not produce any profits.

    Ming Empire: Technology

    • Ming technological innovation slowed after 1400, though the economy continued to grow.

    • The causes of the slow-down were complex

      • growth in population, large labor supply lowered the need for mechanization

      • Revival of civil service exam

      • scarcity of metals for the building of new machines

      • relative lack of technological challenge from military enemies were all contributing factors.

    Ming Vases, 18c

    Ming Carved Lacquer Dish 15c

    Ming Scroll Painting“Travelers in Autumn Mountains”

    Ming Painting – “Taoist Scholar”

    Ming Painting – “Birds and Flowers”, 16c

    Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c

    Ming Empire Vs Mongols

    • Similarities

      • Ming China was built on a Mongol foundation

      • political structure and administration

        • including the military system and a hereditary system of social stratification.

    • Differences

      • More ideological than structural

        • Closed borders to foreigners, severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia, moved capital to Nanjing

      • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.

    Geography of Japan

    • The surrounding seas have both protected and isolated Japan

    Here come the Mongols

    • Only Severe threat to Japan Prior to World War II

    • Attracted by gold, pearls and power the Kublai Khan sent a letter demanding submission and tribute in 1268

    • Two Attempts were made in 1274 and 1281

    Mongol Armour, 1271.

    Japan Defeats the Khan’s Army!!

    • First attempt 900 ships and 40,000 men

    • Surprisingly a strong wind came up “kamikaze” or the divine winds

    • Destroyed 200 ships and 13,000 men

    • By 1281 the samurai had built a stone wall and the Khan’s army was fought off from the wall!

    A stone barrier 20 km long bordering the coast of Hakata Bay at Fukuoka

    Vietnamese LegendKublai Khan, the Mongol leader of thirteenth-century China, sent an army to conquer Vietnam. The Mongols smashed the Vietnamese capital but were repulsed by a Vietnamese guerrilla counter-offensive. A second Mongol invasion followed that consistedof 500,000 soldiers. The Mongols were met by a Vietnamese force of 200,000 men led by Tran Hung Dao who is today considered to be Vietnam’s greatest national hero. According to a legend that reminds us of England’s King Arthur story, a magical turtle arose from a lake and gave Tran an enchanted sword. He used this sword to again defeat the Mongols and then returned it to the turtle in the lake.

    Han Conquest

    • Han conquered the southern “barbarians” in 111 B.C.E. by always had trouble controlling the area.

    • Why? Geography

    • Viet elite adopted the bureaucratic ways of the Chinese.

    • Adopted Confucianism.

    • Adopted ancestor worship and extended family concept.

    • Buddhism became a dominant influence in the religious and cultural life of the people.

    • Position of women was stronger than in China

      • Trung sisters


    • Massive rebellion in 907, taking advantage of political chaos of the Tang.

    • 939 won independence from China

    • Defeated all 3 invasion attempts by the Yuan Mongols

    • Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century CE, when the country was colonized by the French Empire.

    Koryo Dynasty

    • Root of modern name – Korea

    • 918 – 1392 C.E.

    • From the Silla through Koryo adoption of Chinese influences

    • Adopted Chinese political institutions

    • Tributary system to the Chinese emperor

    Mongols Influence in Korea

    • Cultural Diffussion

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

      • philosophical ideas of Yuan China, astronomical observation, mathematics, and growing of cotton

    Fall of the Koryo

    • Mongol invasion of 1231.

    • Koryo was a “puppet” dynasty of this time.

      • Overtime it will become attached and loyal to Mongols

    • In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and founded the Yi Dynasty (or sometimes seen as the New Chosen).

    • Yi Dynasty lasted until 1910.

    Choson (or Yi) Dynasty1392-1910

    • In 1392, the Koreans overthrew their Mongol conquerors and set up the Choson dynasty

    • The period began in 1392 and ended in 1910.

    • Japan will control Korea from 1911 to 1945.

    Painting on Silk - 18th century

    Yi Dynasty (1392 -1910)

    • The Yi kingdom

      • Established the longest dynasty in Korea

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

    • Education

      • Moving from block printing to movable type, brought about a very high rate of literacy

        • Hangul

    • military technology

      • Patrol ships with mounted cannons, gun powder arrow-launchers, and armored ships

      • made possible a formidable navy

    Class System

    • Aristocrats (ruling class)

    • Yang-ban (Upper class)

    • Jung-in (Middle class)

      • Merchants, artisans, doctors

    • Chun-min (Lower class)

      • Peasants, farmers, slaves,

    • Baek-jung (untouchables)

      • butchers, executioners

    Easy to Learn Language

    • Illiteracy is virtually nonexistent in Korea.

    • This is another fact that attests to the easy learn ability of Han-gul.

    Han-gul Language

    As the above examples clearly show, Han-gul. with only 14 consonants and 10 vowels, is capable of expressing virtually any sound.


    • In the Choson dynasty people were garments called the Hanbok.

    • The clothes reflected the social status

    • people wore the clothes of different designs, patterns, and colors according to their social classes.




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