Chapter 14
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Chapter 14. Discussion and Review. Mongol Empire. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:.

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Discussion and Review


Chapter 14

Mongol Empire


Chapter 14

Mongolian Steppes


Chapter 14

Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”


Chapter 14

Mongol Invasions


Mongol warriors

Mongol Warriors


Mongol archer

Mongol Archer


Gold saddle arch mongols 13c

Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c


Gold saddle front view mongols 13c

Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c


Genghis khan s tax laws

Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:

  • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.

  • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.

  • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.

  • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.

  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!


  • Mongol nobleman late 13c

    Mongol Nobleman, late 13c


    Robe of a mongol nobleman early 14c

    Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c


    Yuan golden bowl 13c

    Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c


    Yuan empire 1279 1368

    Yuan Empire (1279-1368)

    • Khubilai Khan

      • Declared Great Khan in 1265

      • founded the Yuan empire in 1271

      • Moved capital to Beijing

      • Incorporated Chinese traditions

        • Confucian laws and public policies

    • Government

      • Western Asian Muslims as official

      • Hierarchical system

      • Legally defined status groups

      • Confucians had a weak role

      • merchants and doctors elevated


    Yuan mongol dynasty 1279 1368 c e

    Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.

    • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]

      • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]

        • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 

        • No Chinese in top govt. posts.

        • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.

        • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.

          • Marco Polo


    Marco polo 1254 1324

    Marco Polo (1254-1324)

    • A Venetian merchant.

    • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295

      • “Black Stones” [coal]

      • Gunpowder.

      • Noodles.


    Marco polo s travels

    Marco Polo’s Travels


    Yuan dynasty

    Yuan Dynasty

    • Economy / Trade

      • Tax farming

      • Used paper money and copper coins

      • Revitalized trade

    • Cultural Diffusion

      • Encouraged sharing and exchange of ideas

      • Medical information, Science, Mathematics, warfare, etc.


    Yuan porcelains ceramics

    Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics


    Chapter 14

    China’s last native imperial dynasty!


    Ming dynasty 1368 1644

    Ming Dynasty - 1368 – 1644

    • Closed borders to foreigners

    • severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia

    • moved capital to Nanjing; later moved backed to Beijing

    • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.


    Chapter 14

    2

    How Did the Ming Restore the Chinese Government…

    • Restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous than ever

    • Revived Confucian learning

    • Repaired the canal system that linked regions and made trade easier

    • Supported a revival of arts and literature


    Chapter 14

    The Forbidden City: China’s New Capital


    Chapter 14

    Revived the Civil Service Exam


    Chapter 14

    Ming Cultural Revolution

    • Printing & Literacy

      • Cheap, popular books:

        • woodblock printing.

        • cheap paper.

      • Examination system.

      • Leads to explosion in literacy. 

      • Leads to further popularization of the commercial market.

    • Culture & Art

      • Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:

        • Literature.

        • Painting.

        • Ceramics.

        • Opera.


    Chapter 14

    Ming Silver Market

    • Spanish Silver Convoys

      • Triangle route:

        • Philippines to China to Japan.

      • Silver floods Chinese Market:

        • Causes devaluation of currency & recession

        • Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas.

        • Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe

        • Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe.

      • Helps fund conquest of New World 

      • Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.


    Ming dynasty 1368 1644 c e

    Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E.

    • Golden Age of Chinese Art

      • Moderation

      • Softness

      • Gracefulness

    • Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.


    Ming emperor tai zu r 1368 1398

    Ming Emperor Tai Zu(r. 1368-1398)


    The tribute system

    The Tribute System


    Admiral zheng he cheng ho

    Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

    • Ming “Treasure Fleet”

      • Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide

    • China’s “Columbus?” 

    1371-1435


    Admiral zheng he s voyages

    Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages

    • First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men].

    • Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip].

    • Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men].

    • Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men].

    • Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419

    • Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422

      • Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work.

    • Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433

      • Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam

      • 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.


    Zheng he s mission

    Zheng He’s Mission

    • Mission

      • To reestablish trade links with the Middle East

      • Bring Southeast Asian countries and their overseas Chinese population under its influence

    • Accomplishments

      • Acquired Ming tributary states

      • 50 new tributaries

      • Overall not very profitable


    Chapter 14

    Shape of the World Video Clip…


    Chapter 14

    • 1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.


    Chapter 14

    Why did Ming emperors turn their back on overseas exploration?

    • Confucian scholars had little interest in overseas ventures. To them, Chinese civilization was superior to all others.

    • The Chinese wanted to preserve ancient traditions, which they saw as the source of stability.

    • Fleets of seagoing ships were costly and did not produce any profits.


    Ming empire technology

    Ming Empire: Technology

    • Ming technological innovation slowed after 1400, though the economy continued to grow.

    • The causes of the slow-down were complex

      • growth in population, large labor supply lowered the need for mechanization

      • Revival of civil service exam

      • scarcity of metals for the building of new machines

      • relative lack of technological challenge from military enemies were all contributing factors.


    Ming vases 18c

    Ming Vases, 18c


    Ming carved lacquer dish 15c

    Ming Carved Lacquer Dish 15c


    Ming scroll painting travelers in autumn mountains

    Ming Scroll Painting“Travelers in Autumn Mountains”


    Ming painting taoist scholar

    Ming Painting – “Taoist Scholar”


    Ming painting birds and flowers 16c

    Ming Painting – “Birds and Flowers”, 16c


    Ming painting and calligraphy early 16c

    Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c


    Ming empire vs mongols

    Ming Empire Vs Mongols

    • Similarities

      • Ming China was built on a Mongol foundation

      • political structure and administration

        • including the military system and a hereditary system of social stratification.

    • Differences

      • More ideological than structural

        • Closed borders to foreigners, severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia, moved capital to Nanjing

      • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.


    Chapter 14

    Geography of Japan

    • The surrounding seas have both protected and isolated Japan


    Chapter 14

    Here come the Mongols

    • Only Severe threat to Japan Prior to World War II

    • Attracted by gold, pearls and power the Kublai Khan sent a letter demanding submission and tribute in 1268

    • Two Attempts were made in 1274 and 1281

    Mongol Armour, 1271.


    Chapter 14

    Japan Defeats the Khan’s Army!!

    • First attempt 900 ships and 40,000 men

    • Surprisingly a strong wind came up “kamikaze” or the divine winds

    • Destroyed 200 ships and 13,000 men

    • By 1281 the samurai had built a stone wall and the Khan’s army was fought off from the wall!

    A stone barrier 20 km long bordering the coast of Hakata Bay at Fukuoka


    Chapter 14

    Vietnamese LegendKublai Khan, the Mongol leader of thirteenth-century China, sent an army to conquer Vietnam. The Mongols smashed the Vietnamese capital but were repulsed by a Vietnamese guerrilla counter-offensive. A second Mongol invasion followed that consistedof 500,000 soldiers. The Mongols were met by a Vietnamese force of 200,000 men led by Tran Hung Dao who is today considered to be Vietnam’s greatest national hero. According to a legend that reminds us of England’s King Arthur story, a magical turtle arose from a lake and gave Tran an enchanted sword. He used this sword to again defeat the Mongols and then returned it to the turtle in the lake.


    Han conquest

    Han Conquest

    • Han conquered the southern “barbarians” in 111 B.C.E. by always had trouble controlling the area.

    • Why? Geography

    • Viet elite adopted the bureaucratic ways of the Chinese.

    • Adopted Confucianism.

    • Adopted ancestor worship and extended family concept.

    • Buddhism became a dominant influence in the religious and cultural life of the people.

    • Position of women was stronger than in China

      • Trung sisters


    Independence

    Independence

    • Massive rebellion in 907, taking advantage of political chaos of the Tang.

    • 939 won independence from China

    • Defeated all 3 invasion attempts by the Yuan Mongols

    • Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century CE, when the country was colonized by the French Empire.


    Koryo dynasty

    Koryo Dynasty

    • Root of modern name – Korea

    • 918 – 1392 C.E.

    • From the Silla through Koryo adoption of Chinese influences

    • Adopted Chinese political institutions

    • Tributary system to the Chinese emperor


    Mongols influence in korea

    Mongols Influence in Korea

    • Cultural Diffussion

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

      • philosophical ideas of Yuan China, astronomical observation, mathematics, and growing of cotton


    Fall of the koryo

    Fall of the Koryo

    • Mongol invasion of 1231.

    • Koryo was a “puppet” dynasty of this time.

      • Overtime it will become attached and loyal to Mongols

    • In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and founded the Yi Dynasty (or sometimes seen as the New Chosen).

    • Yi Dynasty lasted until 1910.


    Chapter 14

    Choson (or Yi) Dynasty1392-1910

    • In 1392, the Koreans overthrew their Mongol conquerors and set up the Choson dynasty

    • The period began in 1392 and ended in 1910.

    • Japan will control Korea from 1911 to 1945.

    Painting on Silk - 18th century


    Yi dynasty 1392 1910

    Yi Dynasty (1392 -1910)

    • The Yi kingdom

      • Established the longest dynasty in Korea

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

    • Education

      • Moving from block printing to movable type, brought about a very high rate of literacy

        • Hangul

    • military technology

      • Patrol ships with mounted cannons, gun powder arrow-launchers, and armored ships

      • made possible a formidable navy


    Class system

    Class System

    • Aristocrats (ruling class)

    • Yang-ban (Upper class)

    • Jung-in (Middle class)

      • Merchants, artisans, doctors

    • Chun-min (Lower class)

      • Peasants, farmers, slaves,

    • Baek-jung (untouchables)

      • butchers, executioners


    Chapter 14

    Easy to Learn Language

    • Illiteracy is virtually nonexistent in Korea.

    • This is another fact that attests to the easy learn ability of Han-gul.


    Chapter 14

    Han-gul Language

    As the above examples clearly show, Han-gul. with only 14 consonants and 10 vowels, is capable of expressing virtually any sound.


    Hanbok

    Hanbok

    • In the Choson dynasty people were garments called the Hanbok.

    • The clothes reflected the social status

    • people wore the clothes of different designs, patterns, and colors according to their social classes.


    Hanbok1

    Hanbok


    Hanbok2

    Hanbok


    Royalty

    Royalty


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