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Chapter 14. Discussion and Review. Mongol Empire. Mongolian Steppes. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”. Mongol Invasions. Mongol Warriors. Mongol Archer. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c. Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:.

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Discussion and Review

Genghis khan s tax laws
Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:

  • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.

  • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.

  • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.

  • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.

  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!

  • Yuan empire 1279 1368
    Yuan Empire (1279-1368)

    • Khubilai Khan

      • Declared Great Khan in 1265

      • founded the Yuan empire in 1271

      • Moved capital to Beijing

      • Incorporated Chinese traditions

        • Confucian laws and public policies

    • Government

      • Western Asian Muslims as official

      • Hierarchical system

      • Legally defined status groups

      • Confucians had a weak role

      • merchants and doctors elevated

    Yuan mongol dynasty 1279 1368 c e
    Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E.

    • Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294]

      • Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”]

        • Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. 

        • No Chinese in top govt. posts.

        • Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy.

        • Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China.

          • Marco Polo

    Marco polo 1254 1324
    Marco Polo (1254-1324)

    • A Venetian merchant.

    • Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295

      • “Black Stones” [coal]

      • Gunpowder.

      • Noodles.

    Yuan dynasty
    Yuan Dynasty

    • Economy / Trade

      • Tax farming

      • Used paper money and copper coins

      • Revitalized trade

    • Cultural Diffusion

      • Encouraged sharing and exchange of ideas

      • Medical information, Science, Mathematics, warfare, etc.

    Ming dynasty 1368 1644
    Ming Dynasty - 1368 – 1644

    • Closed borders to foreigners

    • severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia

    • moved capital to Nanjing; later moved backed to Beijing

    • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.


    How Did the Ming Restore the Chinese Government…

    • Restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous than ever

    • Revived Confucian learning

    • Repaired the canal system that linked regions and made trade easier

    • Supported a revival of arts and literature

    Ming Cultural Revolution

    • Printing & Literacy

      • Cheap, popular books:

        • woodblock printing.

        • cheap paper.

      • Examination system.

      • Leads to explosion in literacy. 

      • Leads to further popularization of the commercial market.

    • Culture & Art

      • Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things:

        • Literature.

        • Painting.

        • Ceramics.

        • Opera.

    Ming Silver Market

    • Spanish Silver Convoys

      • Triangle route:

        • Philippines to China to Japan.

      • Silver floods Chinese Market:

        • Causes devaluation of currency & recession

        • Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas.

        • Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe

        • Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe.

      • Helps fund conquest of New World 

      • Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.

    Ming dynasty 1368 1644 c e
    Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E.

    • Golden Age of Chinese Art

      • Moderation

      • Softness

      • Gracefulness

    • Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.

    Ming emperor tai zu r 1368 1398
    Ming Emperor Tai Zu(r. 1368-1398)

    Admiral zheng he cheng ho
    Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

    • Ming “Treasure Fleet”

      • Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide

    • China’s “Columbus?” 


    Admiral zheng he s voyages
    Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages

    • First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men].

    • Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip].

    • Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men].

    • Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men].

    • Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419

    • Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422

      • Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work.

    • Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433

      • Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam

      • 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.

    Zheng he s mission
    Zheng He’s Mission

    • Mission

      • To reestablish trade links with the Middle East

      • Bring Southeast Asian countries and their overseas Chinese population under its influence

    • Accomplishments

      • Acquired Ming tributary states

      • 50 new tributaries

      • Overall not very profitable

    Why did Ming emperors turn their back on overseas exploration?

    • Confucian scholars had little interest in overseas ventures. To them, Chinese civilization was superior to all others.

    • The Chinese wanted to preserve ancient traditions, which they saw as the source of stability.

    • Fleets of seagoing ships were costly and did not produce any profits.

    Ming empire technology
    Ming Empire: Technology exploration?

    • Ming technological innovation slowed after 1400, though the economy continued to grow.

    • The causes of the slow-down were complex

      • growth in population, large labor supply lowered the need for mechanization

      • Revival of civil service exam

      • scarcity of metals for the building of new machines

      • relative lack of technological challenge from military enemies were all contributing factors.

    Ming vases 18c
    Ming Vases, 18c exploration?

    Ming scroll painting travelers in autumn mountains
    Ming Scroll Painting exploration?“Travelers in Autumn Mountains”

    Ming empire vs mongols
    Ming Empire Vs Mongols exploration?

    • Similarities

      • Ming China was built on a Mongol foundation

      • political structure and administration

        • including the military system and a hereditary system of social stratification.

    • Differences

      • More ideological than structural

        • Closed borders to foreigners, severed relations with Middle East and Central Asia, moved capital to Nanjing

      • The Ming were nationalistic and turned toward Confucianism.

    Geography of Japan exploration?

    • The surrounding seas have both protected and isolated Japan

    Here come the Mongols exploration?

    • Only Severe threat to Japan Prior to World War II

    • Attracted by gold, pearls and power the Kublai Khan sent a letter demanding submission and tribute in 1268

    • Two Attempts were made in 1274 and 1281

    Mongol Armour, 1271.

    Japan Defeats exploration?the Khan’s Army!!

    • First attempt 900 ships and 40,000 men

    • Surprisingly a strong wind came up “kamikaze” or the divine winds

    • Destroyed 200 ships and 13,000 men

    • By 1281 the samurai had built a stone wall and the Khan’s army was fought off from the wall!

    A stone barrier 20 km long bordering the coast of Hakata Bay at Fukuoka

    Vietnamese Legend exploration?Kublai Khan, the Mongol leader of thirteenth-century China, sent an army to conquer Vietnam. The Mongols smashed the Vietnamese capital but were repulsed by a Vietnamese guerrilla counter-offensive. A second Mongol invasion followed that consistedof 500,000 soldiers. The Mongols were met by a Vietnamese force of 200,000 men led by Tran Hung Dao who is today considered to be Vietnam’s greatest national hero. According to a legend that reminds us of England’s King Arthur story, a magical turtle arose from a lake and gave Tran an enchanted sword. He used this sword to again defeat the Mongols and then returned it to the turtle in the lake.

    Han conquest
    Han Conquest exploration?

    • Han conquered the southern “barbarians” in 111 B.C.E. by always had trouble controlling the area.

    • Why? Geography

    • Viet elite adopted the bureaucratic ways of the Chinese.

    • Adopted Confucianism.

    • Adopted ancestor worship and extended family concept.

    • Buddhism became a dominant influence in the religious and cultural life of the people.

    • Position of women was stronger than in China

      • Trung sisters

    Independence exploration?

    • Massive rebellion in 907, taking advantage of political chaos of the Tang.

    • 939 won independence from China

    • Defeated all 3 invasion attempts by the Yuan Mongols

    • Vietnam's independence ended in the mid-19th century CE, when the country was colonized by the French Empire.

    Koryo dynasty
    Koryo Dynasty exploration?

    • Root of modern name – Korea

    • 918 – 1392 C.E.

    • From the Silla through Koryo adoption of Chinese influences

    • Adopted Chinese political institutions

    • Tributary system to the Chinese emperor

    Mongols influence in korea
    Mongols Influence in Korea exploration?

    • Cultural Diffussion

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

      • philosophical ideas of Yuan China, astronomical observation, mathematics, and growing of cotton

    Fall of the koryo
    Fall of the Koryo exploration?

    • Mongol invasion of 1231.

    • Koryo was a “puppet” dynasty of this time.

      • Overtime it will become attached and loyal to Mongols

    • In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and founded the Yi Dynasty (or sometimes seen as the New Chosen).

    • Yi Dynasty lasted until 1910.

    Choson (or Yi) Dynasty exploration?1392-1910

    • In 1392, the Koreans overthrew their Mongol conquerors and set up the Choson dynasty

    • The period began in 1392 and ended in 1910.

    • Japan will control Korea from 1911 to 1945.

    Painting on Silk - 18th century

    Yi dynasty 1392 1910
    Yi Dynasty (1392 -1910) exploration?

    • The Yi kingdom

      • Established the longest dynasty in Korea

      • The Mongols shared information and facilitated the spread of technologies and knowledge to Korea.

    • Education

      • Moving from block printing to movable type, brought about a very high rate of literacy

        • Hangul

    • military technology

      • Patrol ships with mounted cannons, gun powder arrow-launchers, and armored ships

      • made possible a formidable navy

    Class system
    Class System exploration?

    • Aristocrats (ruling class)

    • Yang-ban (Upper class)

    • Jung-in (Middle class)

      • Merchants, artisans, doctors

    • Chun-min (Lower class)

      • Peasants, farmers, slaves,

    • Baek-jung (untouchables)

      • butchers, executioners

    Easy to Learn Language exploration?

    • Illiteracy is virtually nonexistent in Korea.

    • This is another fact that attests to the easy learn ability of Han-gul.

    Han-gul Language exploration?

    As the above examples clearly show, Han-gul. with only 14 consonants and 10 vowels, is capable of expressing virtually any sound.

    Hanbok exploration?

    • In the Choson dynasty people were garments called the Hanbok.

    • The clothes reflected the social status

    • people wore the clothes of different designs, patterns, and colors according to their social classes.

    Hanbok exploration?

    Hanbok exploration?

    Royalty exploration?