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Cycling of Materials. Chapter 5 Section 2. Carbon Cycle. Carbon cycles between the atmosphere, land, water and organisms Short term part of cycle – producers, consumers and atmosphere Mostly by photosynthesis and respiration Long term part of cycle – carbonates, limestone, and fossil fuels

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cycling of materials

Cycling of Materials

Chapter 5

Section 2

carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon cycles between the atmosphere, land, water and organisms
  • Short term part of cycle – producers, consumers and atmosphere
    • Mostly by photosynthesis and respiration
  • Long term part of cycle – carbonates, limestone, and fossil fuels
    • Formed underground over thousands of years
  • Human impact– increased carbon (CO2) in the atmosphere
    • Leads to global warming
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen - used by all organisms to build proteins
  • 78% of the atmosphere is N2
    • Organisms can’t use nitrogen in this form
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria “fix” the nitrogen, converting it to forms that plants can use
    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria = NFB
slide5
NFB live in nodules on the roots of legumes
    • beans, peas, clover
  • Plants take in ‘N’ through their roots
    • Animals eat plants
    • Both plants and animals die
    • Decomposers break down wastes and return ‘N’ to soil
  • Nitrogen in soil can be returned as N2 to atmosphere by another type of bacteria
phosphorus cycle
Phosphorus Cycle
  • Phosphorus cycles mainly between rocks and organisms in the environment
    • Very slow cycle
    • No atmospheric component because phosphorus is rarely a gas
  • Large amounts of P sink to bottom of ocean and build up in sediment
    • Becomes part of sedimentary rock
human impact
Human Impact
  • Fertilizer has high amounts of ‘N’ and ‘P’
  • Used to increase plant growth
  • Excess fertilizer usage leads to increased ‘N’ and ‘P’ in runoff
    • In an aquatic ecosystem, causes algae bloom which leads to lack of oxygen in the water
    • Kills fish that need oxygen to breathe
human impact cont
Human Impact (cont.)
  • ‘N’ in form of Nitric Oxide is released from burning wood, coal, & oil
  • Nitric Oxide is harmful gas, which combines with oxygen and water vapor
    • Forms Nitric Acid, which dissolves in rain and snow
  • Result – Acid Precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, fog
    • Kills organisms, changes pH of ecosystem
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