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Urbanization As Seen Through Late 19c - Early 20c Architecture. With Help from Susan M. Pojer. Megalopolis. Mass Transit. Magnet for economic and social opportunities. Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner & outer core New frontier of opportunity for women.

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Urbanization

As Seen Through

Late 19c - Early 20c

Architecture

With Help from Susan M. Pojer


Characteristics of urbanization during the gilded age

Megalopolis.

Mass Transit.

Magnet for economic and social opportunities.

Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner & outer core

New frontier of opportunity for women.

Squalid living conditions for many.

Political machines.

Ethnic neighborhoods.

Characteristics of UrbanizationDuring the Gilded Age


NewUse ofSpace

NewClassDiversity

NewArchitectural Style

New Energy

NewSymbols ofChange &Progress

The City as aNew “Frontier?”

New Culture(“Melting Pot”)

Make a NewStart

New Form ofClassic “RuggedIndividualism”

New Levels of Crime, Violence, &Corruption


CHICAGO:

"The

Windy City"


William Le Baron Jenney

  • 1832 – 1907

  • “Father of the ModernSkyscraper”


W. Le Baron Jenney: CentralY.M.C.A., Chicago, 1891


Louis Sullivan

  • 1856 – 1924

  • The ChicagoSchool ofArchitecture

  • Form followsfunction!



Louis Sullivan: Carson, Pirie, Scott Dept. Store, Chicago, 1899


Frank Lloyd Wright

  • 1869 – 1959

  • “Prairie House”School of Architecture

  • “OrganicArchitecture”

  • Function follows form!


Frank Lloyd Wright:Allen-Lamb House, 1915


Frank Lloyd Wright:“Falling Waters”, 1936


F. L. Wright Glass Screens

Prairie wheat patterns.


Frank Lloyd Wright:Guggenheim Museum, NYC - 1959


NEW YORK

CITY:

"Gotham"


New york city architectural style 1 870s 1910s

The style was less innovative thanin Chicago.

NYC was the source of the capital for Chicago.

Most major business firms had their headquarters in NYC  their bldgs. became “logos” for their companies.

NYC buildings and skyscrapers were taller than in Chicago.

New York City Architectural Style: 1870s-1910s


Western Union Bldg,. NYC - 1875


ManhattanLifeInsurance Bldg.NYC - 1893


SingerBuilding NYC - 1902


Woolworth Bldg.NYC - 1911


FlatironBuilding NYC – 1902

D. H. Burnham




John A. Roebling:The Brooklyn Bridge, 1883


John A. Roebling:The Brooklyn Bridge, 1913


Statue of Liberty, 1876(Frederic Auguste Bartholdi)




Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lived(1890)








1900RoshHashanahGreetingCard




Protests in

Urban Sweatshops -

Shirtwaist Companies









The Triangle

Shirtwaist

Factory Fire,

March 25, 1911


“The Shirtwaist Kings”Max Blanck and Isaac Harris


Triangle Shirtwaist FactoryAsch Building, 8th and 10th Floors









10th Floor After the Fire





Page of theNew York Journal




Women Workers Marchto City Hall



Out of the Ashes

  • ILGWU membership surged.

  • NYC created a Bureau of FirePrevention.

  • New strict building codes werepassed.

  • Tougher fire inspection ofsweatshops.

  • Growing momentum of support for women’s suffrage.


Changes in immigration patterns
Changes in Immigration Patterns

  • The years between 1870 and 1920 saw one of the greatest surges of immigrants to America. Until 1890, most of these immigrants came from Northern and Western Europe, just like many of the original European immigrants to America.


Changes in immigration patterns1
Changes in Immigration Patterns

  • On the west coast, immigrants from China began arriving for the Gold Rush in 1849, but many ended up working on the railroads or starting farms; after 1882 Congress limited Chinese immigration.


Changes in immigration patterns2
Changes in Immigration Patterns

  • After 1890, the immigrating population changed to people coming from Southern and Eastern Europe, countries such as Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. During this time almost a million people also immigrated from Mexico and the West Indies.


Why the new immigration

Rapidly growing population in the Old World

Industrialization in Europe and the importation of American food disturbed the position of the peasant

“America Fever”

Persecutions of minorities in Europe

Birds of Passage

Why the New Immigration?


Being a new immigrant

Discrimination at work

Generation Gap

Struggle to assimilate

Bintel Brief

Being a New Immigrant


Taking care of the new immigrants

Originally taken care of by city “bosses”

“Christian Socialist” preachers

Jane Addams and Hull House

Settlement Houses

Florence Kelley – Socialism, Rights, and the Henry Street Settlement (founded by Lillian Wald)

Taking Care of the New Immigrants


Changes brought by the new immigration

Women in the work force

Mostly single

Helped family and still had some pocket money

Brought more economic and social independence

Changes Brought by the New Immigration


Nativism

Nativism: Preferential treatment towards native born Americans

Especially Anglo Saxon, Protestants

The American Protective Association (1887)

Organized labor fought new immigration because poor immigrants were willing to take lower wages

Nativism


Government sponsored nativism

1882: Close gates to all paupers, criminals, and convicts + Chinese Exclusion Act

1885: Prohibited the importation of foreign workers under contract

1890’s: Expanded list of undesirables to include: insane, polygamists, prostitutes, alcoholics, anarchists, and people with contagious diseases

1917: Literacy Test

Government Sponsored Nativism


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