Chapter 17. Therapies. What is Psychotherapy?. Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in personality, behavior, or adjustment; some types of psychotherapy: Individual: Involves only one client and one therapist
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Fig. 17.6 The dose-improvement relationship in psychotherapy. This graph shows the percentage of patients who improved after varying numbers of therapy sessions. Notice that the most rapid improvement took place during the first 6 months of once-a-week sessions. (From Howard et al., 1986.)
Fig. 17.1 Primitive “treatment” for mental disorders sometimes took the form of boring a hole in the skull. This example shows signs of healing, which means the patient survived the treatment. Many didn’t.
© Daniella Pellagrini/Photo Researchers
Fig. 17.2 Treatment of a snake phobia by vicarious desensitization. The photographs show models interacting with snakes. To overcome their own fears, phobic subjects observed the models. (Bandura et al., 1969. Photos courtesy of Albert Bandura.)
Fig. 17.3 (left) Dr. Barbara Rothbaum and Dr. Larry Hodges show how a virtual reality system is used to expose people to feared stimuli. Many patients say that they would rather face exposure to feared stimuli in a virtual environment than in a real physical environment. (right) A computer image from a virtual elevator. Over an 8-week period, patients who suffered from acrophobia “rode” in the elevator. Each session took them to greater heights. (Image courtesy of Larry Hodges, Thomas Meyer, and Rob Kooper.)
Fig. 17.5 Shown here is a token used in one token economy system; also pictured is a list of credit values for various activities. Tokens may be exchanged for items or for privileges listed on the board. (After photographs by Robert P. Liberman.)