NRECA CRN RD  on Energy Storage, CO2 Utilization, and EnerFit

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Co-ops and Energy Storage. A wide range of co-ops are looking at energy storage options to address:Frequency RegulationRenewable IntegrationLoad Shifting / Demand ManagementGrid support / micro-grid applicationsCommunity Energy StorageT

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NRECA CRN RD on Energy Storage, CO2 Utilization, and EnerFit

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1. NRECA CRN R&D on Energy Storage, CO2 Utilization, and EnerFit NRECA NET conference Feb 1 2011 Dale Bradshaw NRECA CRN Senior Program Manager and Consultant

2. Co-ops and Energy Storage A wide range of co-ops are looking at energy storage options to address: Frequency Regulation Renewable Integration Load Shifting / Demand Management Grid support / micro-grid applications Community Energy Storage T&D asset deferral Needs range from demand management at distribution co-ops to large scale wind integration at G&Ts Potential applications across the continental US plus Alaska and Hawaii – a living laboratory Co-ops have unique advantages: agile decision making, low cost of capital (3% to 5%), plus value for T&D asset deferral can be credited to the Co-op allowing for multiple benefit streams Co-ops have shown ability to provide significant cost share (e.g., $34M on Smart Grid Demo) and to work collaboratively

3. Existing and Planned Co-op Energy Storage Projects McIntosh CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) Plant 110 MW plant installed in 1991 at Power South Golden Valley BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) 27 MW, 15 minute NiCad BESS for grid support -- in operation for 10 years – up for battery renewal Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) PPC ZnBr Flow Battery in Kotzebue Alaska 0.5MW, 7.4 hours for renewable integration, freq regulation, undergoing factory acceptance test (FAT) Need for another 0.5 MW energy storage with 5 to 7 hours in 2012 to handle wind spilled from another 1.8 MW of wind turbines with possible economically viable technologies being: PPC ZnBr flow battery at 65% efficiency, <$250/kW-hr, and >10,000 cycle life Zinc Air, Inc (ZAI) Zinc Redox Flow battery at 78% efficiency, operates at ambient conditions without chillers, <$350/kW-hr now and and >30,000 cycle life Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) Advanced BESS Xtreme Power 1.5 MW and 1.0 MWH DPR selected for advanced BESS for solar integration and frequency regulation

4. Existing and Planned Co-op Energy Storage Projects Dispatchable Distributed Battery Storage with Renewable Integration Minnesota Co-op installing 10-20 kWh distributed battery systems with Smart Grid control A Co-op in Oklahoma testing a residential advanced lead acid battery Central Electric Power Cooperative Inc. (CEPCI) interested in distributed advanced batteries for demand response/peak shaving Lithium Titanate (LiTi) Frequency Regulation Project Co-op evaluating 4MW, 15 minute AltairNano battery for frequency regulation and backup power for large customer (rock crusher) – study shows it is very near cost-effectiveness based on frequency regulation market ISO-Thermal CAES by General Compression Early stage evaluation of potential project for large scale storage of wind energy to enable better system operation with possible interest at Basin Electric with target commercial price of $1000/kW for over 10 hours of storage Alaska Village Energy Cooperative (AVEC) Energy Storage to manage the spillage and intermittency of wind with economically viable technologies being:

5. CRN project on Energy Storage Monitoring, Lessons Learned, and Interconnection Evaluate the demonstration of multiple advanced battery systems. Provide assistance in interconnection of the energy storage system to the grid to cooperatives that are planning to install energy storage systems. Monitor and report on 12 months of economic and technical data. Analyze and report on the availability and reliability of the energy storage system. Calculate a predicted economic payback based on the 12 months of project data. Possibility to expand to multiple battery installations and data over longer periods develop economic model to assist co-ops in evaluating energy storage opportunities Provide lessons learned and best practices

6. Why is Energy Storage Critical to Improving Affordability and Reliability Shift wind and solar to meet the peak and make wind and solar dispatchable (see the next three slides). Provide for high cost, high value frequency regulation Provide demand reduction or avoid need for new capacity Delay or avoid the need to build new transmission or distribution lines in high cost areas or add new transformer banks Buy low cost electricity at night and run during high cost daily peaks (like arbitrage in the stock market) Provide for fast (<4 cycle) backup power for minutes or hours to improve system reliability Provide spinning reserve Reduce carbon emissions Reduce consumption of oil and natural gas

9. Intermittency of Solar and Wind

10. Possible Value Streams for Energy Storage (Potential Net Present Values) Capacity credit or demand charge reduction ($500/kW to $3600/kW) Arbitrage value (Buy low and sell high ranging from $900/kW to $1500/kW) Firming and Shifting Renewables (wind and solar) Improved thermal plant efficiency Reduce CO2 emissions from thermal plants Improve Thermal Plant Reliability T&D capital asset deferral ($200/kW to $1300/kW) Avoid or delay need for second transformer or transformer bank Reduced congestion and line losses Frequency regulation ($1600/kW to $4000/kW) Dynamic VAr Support ($100/kW) Improved service reliability

11. Energy Storage Systems History Review

12. Energy Storage Systems History Review

13. OPC Rocky Mountain Pumped Hydroelectric Plant Three units totaling 848 MW, $700 million initial cost

14. Advanced Battery Breakthroughs Long Life (defined by number of charge and discharge cycles is needed) Cycle lifetime of 5,000 to 10,000 cycle is now possible Charging and discharging daily implies 300 or more cycles a year, 9,000 cycles in 30 years Costs have decreased by 30% to 50% $2,000/kW now for 7 hours of storage instead of >$3,500/kW Large battery complexes are being built in >1 Mw sizes Acceptable efficiency of 70% or more

15. Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Battery Attributes

16. Example of Xtreme Power Dynamic Power ResourceTM Battery KIUC has ordered a 1.5 MW and 1 MWhr Battery

17. ZnBr Battery Attributes Premium Power Corporation & ZBB

19. Premium Power Corporation TransFlow 2050-7 Zinc Bromide battery on a trailer 500 kW, 7.4 hours and 3.8 MW-Hr & ~$1 million

20. A TF-2050-7 being completed for KEA to be Factory Acceptance Tested (FAT)

21. Close up of TF-2050 Modules

22. TF-AC to DC inverter, inductive chokes and transformer for KEA

23. Promising Zinc Air Inc. Zinc Redox (Flow Battery) Advantages

25. Two 1 MW Field Test Units installed at Indianapolis P&L May 2008 Testing Complete: June 2008 Qualified for Commercial Operation in PJM RTO: November 2008 Running 24/7: May 2009

26. Excellent Altairnano Lithium Titanate Battery Cycle Life to 80% Capacity for Frequency Regulation Markets Long Life is really our biggest benefit over other types of batteries Our Cycle life dependent upon depth of discharge and temperature, so this is charge of cycle life on the y axis versus depth of discharge on the x axis. Note that the y axis is a logrithmic scale – from 1,000 to 10 million at the top Cycle life of our batteries at two temperatures is shown – 25 deg C and 35 deg C Cycle life means cycles to 20% degradation. At 25 deg C, 16,000 cycles at 25 deg C and 100 DoD. Almost 2 million cycles at 10% DoD Practical Ramifications of this life: In applications like peak shaving with one 100% cycle per day - 50 year life – usually not economic In applications like freq regulation with many shallow cycles per day - 20 year life – this is where our systems bring the greatest benefit to utilities and developers Three characteristics that are not on this chart: Many batteries experience accelerating degradation rates after they reach 20% degradation, which is why life to 80% has become the typical way to measure cycle life. Our degradation past 80% continues to be linear – other batteries experience quicker degradation once capacity is reduced to 80%. Our degradation is not affected by C rates. Our calendar life degradation is less than 1% over 20 years. Long Life is really our biggest benefit over other types of batteries Our Cycle life dependent upon depth of discharge and temperature, so this is charge of cycle life on the y axis versus depth of discharge on the x axis. Note that the y axis is a logrithmic scale – from 1,000 to 10 million at the top Cycle life of our batteries at two temperatures is shown – 25 deg C and 35 deg C Cycle life means cycles to 20% degradation. At 25 deg C, 16,000 cycles at 25 deg C and 100 DoD. Almost 2 million cycles at 10% DoD Practical Ramifications of this life: In applications like peak shaving with one 100% cycle per day - 50 year life – usually not economic In applications like freq regulation with many shallow cycles per day - 20 year life – this is where our systems bring the greatest benefit to utilities and developers Three characteristics that are not on this chart: Many batteries experience accelerating degradation rates after they reach 20% degradation, which is why life to 80% has become the typical way to measure cycle life. Our degradation past 80% continues to be linear – other batteries experience quicker degradation once capacity is reduced to 80%. Our degradation is not affected by C rates. Our calendar life degradation is less than 1% over 20 years.

27. Residential Scale via RedFlow’s ZnBr at 5 and 10 kW as example of Community Energy Storage or Distributed Energy Storage Systems (DESS)

28. Possible Large Scale GCAES Demonstration Some large Midwestern G&Ts have significant wind capacity and are looking for ways to add value to this resource through grid stabilization, load shifting, and also provide frequency regulation Commercial Demonstration project would be a ~10 MW / >12 hour capacity using a General Compression CAES (GCAES) system. GCAES is a three stage piston-based “near-isothermal” system. Round trip efficiency is 75% or higher. Low cost mass produced modular units would be 2.4 MW. Operation could also provide frequency regulation during load-shifting charge and discharge cycles Storage would be in solution-mined salt cavern resulting in an above ground brine pond for storing thermal energy, expandable to a hundred hours if necessary. Some co-ops have expressed preliminary interest in a 10-25 MW project after the initial concept is proven. Estimated project cost would be between $1000/kW to $1500/kW including solution mining of salt cavern

29. Recent Advances in CAES General Compression CAES (GCAES)

30. GCAES geologic locations relative to Class IV wind resources in Blue

31. Energy Storage via Liquids and Chemicals– Key to Integrating Renewables and Managing CO2 High Temperature Co- Electrolysis (HTCE) Generates “Green” H2, O2, CO Efficient Operations @ Temperatures > 600 °C Power to Operate from Nuclear/Renewable Energy Sources HTCE Minimizes Carbon Emissions: Manages carbon emissions through conversion to liquid fuels Starting point for commercial synthetic chemical products Another excellent example of transformational technology is High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) key to managing carbon emissions through conversion to liquid fuels. In one implementations, HTE is powered by renewable electric power from solar, wind, hydro, geothermal with O2 fed to the gasifier and H2 fed to the shift reactor and CO fed to the FT reactors to essentially eliminate CO2 emissions while producing liquid transportation fuels. Combining multiple sources of energy is what we call “Hybrid Energy Systems”.Another excellent example of transformational technology is High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) key to managing carbon emissions through conversion to liquid fuels. In one implementations, HTE is powered by renewable electric power from solar, wind, hydro, geothermal with O2 fed to the gasifier and H2 fed to the shift reactor and CO fed to the FT reactors to essentially eliminate CO2 emissions while producing liquid transportation fuels. Combining multiple sources of energy is what we call “Hybrid Energy Systems”.

32. Could Bloom Energy’s Bloom Box Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) be the Foundation for a large scale HTCE system? Bloom Energy Bloom Box is an SOFC that has is proving to be very reliable in tests with ebay, Google, Wal-Mart Bloom Energy Bloom Box is currently very expensive now at $8000/kW, but in large scale for HTCE and in mass production costs could drop. Breakeven for HTCE is at about $6000/kW at $70/BBl for liquid fuel and $70/ton CO2 allowance price Bloom Box will not become cost effective for DG until costs drop to $1000/kW to $2000/kW depending on financing and price for natural gas

33. Oxy-Combustion Combined with HTCE

34. Use of Syngas from HTCE

35. MPC Technology: How it Works

36. MPC Economics MPC total cost: about $15 million for a 100 MW unit No additional staff and moderate cost increase in O&M Cost for conventional control devices (scrubbers, SCRs, and ACI) between $90 million and $190 million dollars for a 100 MW unit New maintenance staff and increased operations costs If scrubbers, SCRs, and ACI required, older uncontrolled plants most likely mothballed and replaced by NGCC MPC technology not a replacement, rather a lower-cost alternative – MACT not BACT MPC technology to meet TR and Utility MACT and possibly Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) phase II for SOx and NOx

37. CRN has brought EnerFit Retrofit Technology for Commercial HVAC to the attention of the Cooperative Community

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