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Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan. Council For Exceptional Children April 7, 2005 Janet Hull School Based Resource Teacher Anne Arundel County Public Schools [email protected] Participants will be able to:.

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Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan

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Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan

Council For Exceptional Children

April 7, 2005

Janet Hull

School Based Resource Teacher

Anne Arundel County Public Schools

[email protected]


Participants will be able to:

  • Identify at least two questions to ask before determining the need for a Temporary Support Assistant (TSA), (Using Decision Making Flowcharts as part of a Needs Assessment)

  • Identify reasons for building student independence

  • Identify elements of a Fade Plan

  • Identify examples of prompts

  • Identify at least three guidelines for “Effective Prompting”

  • Identify two means by which prompts can be faded


Temporary Support Assistants (TSA)

Questions to ask before determining the need for Temporary Support Assistance:

  • Is the IEP appropriate?

  • Are there goals/objectives to increase independence?

  • Have all existing school resources been utilized?

  • Can the student’s needs be met by current staff and/or peer?

  • Have you consulted with Central Office staff within your school system for suggestions and recommendations?


Temporary Support Assistants (TSA)

Temporary Support Assistant Decision Making Flowcharts Pose the following Questions:

  • Is there a significant academic, health, behavior or transition concern?

  • Has the administrator/designee observed this student?

  • What interventions/programs have you tried? What was the success?

  • How long was the intervention attempted?

  • What data was collected to assist in the decision making process?

  • What specific academic, health, behavior or transitional behaviors necessitate the need for Temporary Support Assistant? (be specific)

  • Do these needs necessitate the use of a Temporary Support Assistant?


Consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a TSA:

Negative consequences include:

  • May create an unnatural and more restrictive environment

  • Isolation from classmates

  • Dependence on adults

  • Impact on peer interactions

  • Failure to develop self-regulating behavior


Consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a TSA:

Positive outcomes include:

  • Align to goals of independence

  • Bridge the student into a less restrictive environment

  • Use of a Fade Plan can lead to increased student independence


Why Build Independence?

  • Builds self-esteem

  • Motivates a student to achieve

  • Gives student a sense of purpose to family and friends

  • Support for long-term care providers

  • Social acceptance

  • Reduces stereotypic labels

  • Provides a “bridge” for bringing two worlds together

  • Allows staff and student to focus on instruction


Elements of a Fade Plan

  • Provides Background Information

  • Defines roles/responsibilities of case manager/paraeducator

  • Included in Student Portfolio

  • Includes those goals/objectives on student IEP that support student independence

  • Describes support needed during:

    Transitions

    Classroom

    Behavior

    Self-help

  • Describes prompt hierarchy


Student Portfolio

  • Copy of Needs Assessment/Fade Plan

  • Daily/Weekly checklists documenting success on the Fade Plan

  • Behavior Checklists

  • Work Samples/as appropriate

  • Notes reflecting ongoing communication

  • Minutes from quarterly review of progress on the Fade Plan

  • Copy of Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Implementation Plan (BIP), as appropriate

  • Notes from Learning Lab attendance


Needs Assessment/Fade Plan

Student: ________________________________

School: _________________________________ Grade: _____________________

Date: ___________________________________ Disability: __________________

Case Manager: Special education teacher assigned to a school building that will oversee/support the paraeducator as work with the identified student

Responsibilities: (case manager and paraeducator date and initial each of the responsibilities listed

below)

Date Initial Initial

__________ __________ __________ Review responsibilities of paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Provide paraeducator with student schedule

__________ __________ __________ Provide paraed. with information regarding student disability

__________ __________ __________ Review current IEP with paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Review data collection method for documenting success

(responsibility of paraeducator for recording)

__________ __________ __________ Introduce student/paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Monitor/observe paraeducator working with the student

quarterly

__________ __________ __________ Case manager assesses need for additional training/resource

support with paraeducator

Date responsibilities are completed: ______________________________


Prompt Hierarchy

Most to least intrusive:

  • Full physical

  • Partial physical

  • Verbal prompt

  • Visual prompt

  • Modeling

  • Natural teacher prompt/cue


Guidelines for Effective Prompting:

  • Do not provide a prompt for a skill that a student currently performs independently.

  • Gain student attention

  • Prompt a desired response initially

  • Use the least intrusive effective prompt

  • Prompt from behind when using full physical prompts

  • Avoid verbal prompts whenever possible

  • Avoid unplanned prompts (e.g. facial expressions, eye contact)


Guidelines for Effective Prompting

  • Use prompts in conjunction with reinforcement

  • All prompts need to be faded over time (Refer to Fade Plan)

  • After a student masters a skill, discontinue using the prompt

  • Continue providing reinforcement when the student exhibits the desired response/behavior

  • Fading prompts are needed to avoid “Prompt Dependency”


What is the ultimate goal?

  • The fading process is complete when the student consistently responds correctly

  • The goal is no assistance from the adult


Fading Prompts

Fading prompts: Allows students to change from responding to instructional prompts to responding to natural cues in the environment.

Fade prompts to allow responses to occur independently!

  • The reduction of the intensity or magnitude of a particular type of prompt over time while maintaining the reward contingency.

  • Prompts can be faded in terms of:

    • Intensity

    • Location


Fading Prompt Intensity

Intensity:

  • Verbal prompt: Gradual decrease in volume (quietly)

  • Verbal prompt: Saying less of the word (Bob – “B”)

  • Visual prompts: Decrease highlighting or coloration to become lighter and lighter until they disappear

  • Physical prompt: Reduction of tight hand over hand to shadowing


Fading Prompt Location

Location:

  • Full physical hand over hand to wrist, to the elbow, to the shoulder, to next to (within 1 foot, to 3 feet, to 5 feet away, etc.)

  • Proximity to student: next to student, within line of vision within the classroom, etc.


Participants will be able to:

  • Identify two questions to ask before determining the need for a Temporary Support Assistant (TSA) (refer to decision making flowcharts)

  • Identify reasons for building student independence

  • Identify elements of a Fade Plan

  • Identify examples of prompts – most to least intrusive

  • Identify at least three guidelines for “Effective Prompting”

  • Identify two means by which prompts can be faded


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