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Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan. Council For Exceptional Children April 7, 2005 Janet Hull School Based Resource Teacher Anne Arundel County Public Schools [email protected] Participants will be able to:.

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fostering student independence how to develop a needs assessment and fade plan
Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan

Council For Exceptional Children

April 7, 2005

Janet Hull

School Based Resource Teacher

Anne Arundel County Public Schools

[email protected]

participants will be able to
Participants will be able to:
  • Identify at least two questions to ask before determining the need for a Temporary Support Assistant (TSA), (Using Decision Making Flowcharts as part of a Needs Assessment)
  • Identify reasons for building student independence
  • Identify elements of a Fade Plan
  • Identify examples of prompts
  • Identify at least three guidelines for “Effective Prompting”
  • Identify two means by which prompts can be faded
temporary support assistants tsa
Temporary Support Assistants (TSA)

Questions to ask before determining the need for Temporary Support Assistance:

  • Is the IEP appropriate?
  • Are there goals/objectives to increase independence?
  • Have all existing school resources been utilized?
  • Can the student’s needs be met by current staff and/or peer?
  • Have you consulted with Central Office staff within your school system for suggestions and recommendations?
temporary support assistants tsa4
Temporary Support Assistants (TSA)

Temporary Support Assistant Decision Making Flowcharts Pose the following Questions:

  • Is there a significant academic, health, behavior or transition concern?
  • Has the administrator/designee observed this student?
  • What interventions/programs have you tried? What was the success?
  • How long was the intervention attempted?
  • What data was collected to assist in the decision making process?
  • What specific academic, health, behavior or transitional behaviors necessitate the need for Temporary Support Assistant? (be specific)
  • Do these needs necessitate the use of a Temporary Support Assistant?
consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a tsa
Consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a TSA:

Negative consequences include:

  • May create an unnatural and more restrictive environment
  • Isolation from classmates
  • Dependence on adults
  • Impact on peer interactions
  • Failure to develop self-regulating behavior
consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a tsa6
Consider the positive and negative impacts of the assignment of a TSA:

Positive outcomes include:

  • Align to goals of independence
  • Bridge the student into a less restrictive environment
  • Use of a Fade Plan can lead to increased student independence
why build independence
Why Build Independence?
  • Builds self-esteem
  • Motivates a student to achieve
  • Gives student a sense of purpose to family and friends
  • Support for long-term care providers
  • Social acceptance
  • Reduces stereotypic labels
  • Provides a “bridge” for bringing two worlds together
  • Allows staff and student to focus on instruction
elements of a fade plan
Elements of a Fade Plan
  • Provides Background Information
  • Defines roles/responsibilities of case manager/paraeducator
  • Included in Student Portfolio
  • Includes those goals/objectives on student IEP that support student independence
  • Describes support needed during:

Transitions

Classroom

Behavior

Self-help

  • Describes prompt hierarchy
student portfolio
Student Portfolio
  • Copy of Needs Assessment/Fade Plan
  • Daily/Weekly checklists documenting success on the Fade Plan
  • Behavior Checklists
  • Work Samples/as appropriate
  • Notes reflecting ongoing communication
  • Minutes from quarterly review of progress on the Fade Plan
  • Copy of Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Implementation Plan (BIP), as appropriate
  • Notes from Learning Lab attendance
slide10

Needs Assessment/Fade Plan

Student: ________________________________

School: _________________________________ Grade: _____________________

Date: ___________________________________ Disability: __________________

Case Manager: Special education teacher assigned to a school building that will oversee/support the paraeducator as work with the identified student

Responsibilities: (case manager and paraeducator date and initial each of the responsibilities listed

below)

Date Initial Initial

__________ __________ __________ Review responsibilities of paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Provide paraeducator with student schedule

__________ __________ __________ Provide paraed. with information regarding student disability

__________ __________ __________ Review current IEP with paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Review data collection method for documenting success

(responsibility of paraeducator for recording)

__________ __________ __________ Introduce student/paraeducator

__________ __________ __________ Monitor/observe paraeducator working with the student

quarterly

__________ __________ __________ Case manager assesses need for additional training/resource

support with paraeducator

Date responsibilities are completed: ______________________________

prompt hierarchy
Prompt Hierarchy

Most to least intrusive:

  • Full physical
  • Partial physical
  • Verbal prompt
  • Visual prompt
  • Modeling
  • Natural teacher prompt/cue
guidelines for effective prompting
Guidelines for Effective Prompting:
  • Do not provide a prompt for a skill that a student currently performs independently.
  • Gain student attention
  • Prompt a desired response initially
  • Use the least intrusive effective prompt
  • Prompt from behind when using full physical prompts
  • Avoid verbal prompts whenever possible
  • Avoid unplanned prompts (e.g. facial expressions, eye contact)
guidelines for effective prompting18
Guidelines for Effective Prompting
  • Use prompts in conjunction with reinforcement
  • All prompts need to be faded over time (Refer to Fade Plan)
  • After a student masters a skill, discontinue using the prompt
  • Continue providing reinforcement when the student exhibits the desired response/behavior
  • Fading prompts are needed to avoid “Prompt Dependency”
what is the ultimate goal
What is the ultimate goal?
  • The fading process is complete when the student consistently responds correctly
  • The goal is no assistance from the adult
fading prompts
Fading Prompts

Fading prompts: Allows students to change from responding to instructional prompts to responding to natural cues in the environment.

Fade prompts to allow responses to occur independently!

  • The reduction of the intensity or magnitude of a particular type of prompt over time while maintaining the reward contingency.
  • Prompts can be faded in terms of:
    • Intensity
    • Location
fading prompt intensity
Fading Prompt Intensity

Intensity:

  • Verbal prompt: Gradual decrease in volume (quietly)
  • Verbal prompt: Saying less of the word (Bob – “B”)
  • Visual prompts: Decrease highlighting or coloration to become lighter and lighter until they disappear
  • Physical prompt: Reduction of tight hand over hand to shadowing
fading prompt location
Fading Prompt Location

Location:

  • Full physical hand over hand to wrist, to the elbow, to the shoulder, to next to (within 1 foot, to 3 feet, to 5 feet away, etc.)
  • Proximity to student: next to student, within line of vision within the classroom, etc.
participants will be able to23
Participants will be able to:
  • Identify two questions to ask before determining the need for a Temporary Support Assistant (TSA) (refer to decision making flowcharts)
  • Identify reasons for building student independence
  • Identify elements of a Fade Plan
  • Identify examples of prompts – most to least intrusive
  • Identify at least three guidelines for “Effective Prompting”
  • Identify two means by which prompts can be faded
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