Embedded systems programming
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Embedded Systems Programming. ARM assembler.

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Embedded Systems Programming

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Embedded systems programming

Embedded Systems Programming

ARM assembler

Embedded systems programming

@ A simple input output program using the StrongARM uart@ -----------------------------------------------------------------------@ Constant values used in this program.setSP1, 0x80010000@ Base of the Microcontroller I/O space.setUTDR, 0x14@ Offset to the Serial Data Register.setUTSR0, 0x1c@ Offset to SP status reg 0.setUTSR1, 0x20@ Offset to the Serial Status port.setUTSR1_TNF, 0b00000100@ Mask to check Tx FIFO Not Full.setUTSR1_RNE, 0b00000010@ Mask to check Rx FIFO Not Empty.setUTSR1_TBY, 0b00000001@ Mask to check Tx Busy@ -----------------------------------------------------------------------@ Assembly-language preamble.text@ Executable code follows.balign 4.global_start@ "_start" is required by the linker.globalmain@ "main" is our main program_start:bmain

Embedded systems programming

@ -----------------------------------------------------------------------@ Start of the main programmain:ldrr1, =SP1@ Use R1 as a base register for uart@ Read a character from the internal serial port1:ldrbr0, [r1, #UTSR1]@ Read the Serial Status porttstr0, #UTSR1_TNF@ Check if a character is availablebeq1b@ No: wait until a character comes inldrbr0, [r1, #UTDR]@ Read the actual character into R0@ Send the character to the internal serial portwb1:ldrbr2, [r1, #UTSR1]@ Check the Serial Status port againtstr2, #UTSR1_TNF@ Can a character be sent out?beqwb1@ No: wait until port is readystrbr0, [r1, #UTDR]@ Send the actual character outb1b@ Do this forever (or until stopped)@ -----------------------------------------------------------------------.end

The example assembler program

The example assembler program

  • Layout is very important

    • Labels must come first & use a colon :

    • Followed by instructions

    • Followed by comments

    • Separate comments start with @ sign

Pseudo operands

Pseudo operands

  • There are 2 general types of data in an assembler program

    • Instructions

    • Pseudo operands

  • Instructions which directly generate code

    • mov r0, #10

  • Pseudo operands which don’t.

    • .text

    • .balign 4

Pseudo operands1

Pseudo operands

  • .ascii & asciz

    • Create an ascii string + 0 byte

  • .balign n^2

    • Align address by n^2 bytes

  • .code 16|32

    • Set instruction for Thumb or ARM

  • .include <filename>

  • .macro <name> arg1, arg2, argn

    • Create a macro with args

    • Ended with .endm

Pseudo operands2

Pseudo operands

  • .section <section name> {flags}

    • Sections are .text, .data .bss

  • .set var_name, value

    • Set variable to value – same as .equ

  • .rept N

    • Repeat block N times end with .endr

  • .word word1, word2, wordn

    • Insert a list of 32 bit words

Arm data instructions

ARM data instructions

  • Basic format:

    • ADD r0,r1,r2

    • Computes r1+r2, stores in r0.

  • Immediate operand:

    • ADD r0,r1,#2

    • Computes r1+2, stores in r0.

Arm data instructions1

ADD, ADC : add (w. carry)

SUB, SBC : subtract (w. carry)

RSB, RSC : reverse subtract (w. carry)

MUL, MLA : multiply (and accumulate)


BIC : bit clear

LSL, LSR : logical shift left/right

ASL, ASR : arithmetic shift left/right

ROR : rotate right

RRX : rotate right extended with C

ARM data instructions

Data operation varieties

Data operation varieties

  • Logical shift:

    • fills with zeroes.

  • Arithmetic shift:

    • fills with ones.

  • RRX performs 33-bit rotate, including C bit from CPSR above sign bit.

Arm comparison instructions

ARM comparison instructions

  • CMP : compare

  • CMN : negated compare

  • TST : bit-wise AND

  • TEQ : bit-wise XOR

  • These instructions set only the NZCV bits of CPSR.

Arm move instructions

ARM move instructions

  • MOV, MVN : move (negated)

  • MOV r0, r1 ; sets r0 to r1

Arm load store instructions

ARM load/store instructions

  • LDR, LDRH, LDRB : load (half-word, byte)

  • STR, STRH, STRB : store (half-word, byte)

  • Addressing modes:

    • register indirect : LDR r0,[r1]

    • with second register : LDR r0,[r1,-r2]

    • with constant : LDR r0,[r1,#4]

Arm adr pseudo op

ARM ADR pseudo-op

  • Cannot refer to an address directly in an instruction.

  • Generate value by performing arithmetic on PC.

  • ADR pseudo-op generates instruction required to calculate address:

    • ADR r1,FOO

Example c assignments

Example: C assignments

  • C:

    • x = (a + b) - c;

  • Assembler:

  • ADR r4,a; get address for a

  • LDR r0,[r4]; get value of a

  • ADR r4,b; get address for b, reusing r4

  • LDR r1,[r4]; get value of b

  • ADD r3,r0,r1; compute a+b

  • ADR r4,c; get address for c

  • LDR r2,[r4]; get value of c

  • SUB r3,r3,r2; complete computation of x

  • ADR r4,x; get address for x

  • STR r3,[r4]; store value of x

Example c assignment

Example: C assignment

  • C:

    • z = (a << 2) | (b & 15);

  • Assembler:

  • ADR r4,a ; get address for a

  • LDR r0,[r4] ; get value of a

  • MOV r0,r0,LSL 2 ; perform shift

  • ADR r4,b ; get address for b

  • LDR r1,[r4] ; get value of b

  • AND r1,r1,#15 ; perform AND

  • ORR r1,r0,r1 ; perform OR

  • ADR r4,z ; get address for z

  • STR r1,[r4] ; store value for z

Additional addressing modes

Additional addressing modes

  • Base-plus-offset addressing:

    • LDR r0,[r1,#16]

    • Loads from location r1+16

  • Auto-indexing increments base register:

    • LDR r0,[r1,#16]!

  • Post-indexing fetches, then does offset:

    • LDR r0,[r1],#16

    • Loads r0 from r1, then adds 16 to r1.

Arm flow of control

ARM flow of control

  • All operations can be performed conditionally, testing CPSR:

    • EQ, NE, CS, CC, MI, PL, VS, VC, HI, LS, GE, LT, GT, LE

  • Branch operation:

    • B #100

    • Can be performed conditionally.

Example if statement

Example: if statement

  • C:

    if (a > b) { x = 5; y = c + d; } else x = c - d;

  • Assembler:

    ; compute and test condition

    ADR r4,a ; get address for a

    LDR r0,[r4] ; get value of a

    ADR r4,b ; get address for b

    LDR r1,[r4] ; get value for b

    CMP r0,r1 ; compare a < b

    BLE fblock ; if a ><= b, branch to false block

If statement continued

If statement, continued

; true block

MOV r0,#5 ; generate value for x

ADR r4,x ; get address for x

STR r0,[r4] ; store x

ADR r4,c ; get address for c

LDR r0,[r4] ; get value of c

ADR r4,d ; get address for d

LDR r1,[r4] ; get value of d

ADD r0,r0,r1 ; compute y

ADR r4,y ; get address for y

STR r0,[r4] ; store y

B after ; branch around false block

If statement continued1

If statement, continued

; false block

fblock ADR r4,c ; get address for c

LDR r0,[r4] ; get value of c

ADR r4,d ; get address for d

LDR r1,[r4] ; get value for d

SUB r0,r0,r1 ; compute a-b

ADR r4,x ; get address for x

STR r0,[r4] ; store value of x

after ...

Example conditional instruction implementation

Example: Conditional instruction implementation

; true block

MOVLT r0,#5 ; generate value for x

ADRLT r4,x ; get address for x

STRLT r0,[r4] ; store x

ADRLT r4,c ; get address for c

LDRLT r0,[r4] ; get value of c

ADRLT r4,d ; get address for d

LDRLT r1,[r4] ; get value of d

ADDLT r0,r0,r1 ; compute y

ADRLT r4,y ; get address for y

STRLT r0,[r4] ; store y

Conditional instruction implementation continued

Conditional instruction implementation, continued.

; false block

ADRGE r4,c ; get address for c

LDRGE r0,[r4] ; get value of c

ADRGE r4,d ; get address for d

LDRGE r1,[r4] ; get value for d

SUBGE r0,r0,r1 ; compute a-b

ADRGE r4,x ; get address for x

STRGE r0,[r4] ; store value of x

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