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Developing a strategy for CO 2 EOR in an unconventional reservoir using 3D seismic attribute workflows and fracture image logs. ACTIVITY & ELEMENT 2.651.070.001.511 FAULT AND FRACTURE ZONE DETECTION AND REDUCED ORDER FRACTURE MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR RISK ASSESSMENT. Tom Wilson

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Developing a strategy for CO2 EOR in an unconventional reservoir using 3D seismic attribute workflows and fracture image logs

ACTIVITY & ELEMENT2.651.070.001.511

FAULT AND FRACTURE ZONE DETECTION AND REDUCED ORDER FRACTURE MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR RISK ASSESSMENT

TomWilson

Department of Geology and Geography

West Virginia University

Morgantown, WV

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Overview
Overview

  • Reservoir characterization is developed using analysis of 3D seismic and fracture image logs and seismic attribute workflows for fracture driver development to distribute fracture intensity throughout the reservoir.

  • Analysis of fracture image logs reveals that the dominant open fracture trend within the reservoir is coincident with present-day SHmax.

  • Outcrop analogs and satellite observations are used to develop model distributions of fracture length, height and spacing

  • Fracture intensity driver is developed using a combination of seismic discontinuities and directional curvature (orthogonal to SHmax).

  • Reservoir compartmentalization is interpreted.

  • A strategy for CO2 EOR is proposed that incorporates placement of injection and production laterals along compartment boundaries and roughly orthogonal to SHmax.

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Location of study area and reservoir structure
Location of study area and reservoir structure

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Dip line views of structure
Dip line views of structure

Wall Creeks

Morrison

Alcova

Goose Egg

Tensleep

Madison

Basement

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Fracture characterization using image logs open fractures in seal reservoir and in total
Fracture characterization using image logs. Open fractures in seal, reservoir and in total

SHmax

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Open fracture trends in the reservoir by well and for all wells
Open fracture trends in the reservoir by well and for all wells

SHmax

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Field analogs of seismic discontinuities
Field analogs of seismic discontinuities wells

Fracture Zone

280’

Fracture Zone


Defining fracture parameters fracture height distribution
Defining fracture parameters- wellsFracture height distribution

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Higher power implies lower probability of higher fractures
Higher power implies lower probability of higher fractures wells

-1.61

-2.18

-1.62

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Spacing distributions estimated in freemont canyon
Spacing distributions estimated in Freemont Canyon wells

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Variations of fracture intensity in the reservoir
Variations of fracture intensity in the reservoir wells

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Fracture length distributions from world view meter resolution imagery
Fracture length distributions from World view ½ meter resolution imagery

Outcrop viewed from opposite side of canyon

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Local fractures mapped using worldview imagery
Local fractures mapped using WorldView imagery resolution imagery

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Fracture length distributions from worldview imagery
Fracture length distributions resolution imagery(from WorldView imagery)

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Seismic discontinuity length distribution
Seismic discontinuity length distribution resolution imagery

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Aperture distributions log normal with some power law behavior for apertures above 0 05 mm
Aperture distributions – log normal with some power law behavior for apertures above ~0.05 mm

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Seismic discontinuity detection workflow
Seismic discontinuity detection workflow behavior for apertures above ~0.05 mm

Discontinuity detection workflow components

A variety of post-stack processing workflows have been developed as part of this research. Multiple workflows are usually tested and compared. Some example discontinuity detection workflows are shown at left.

Often, discontinuities can be significantly enhanced simply by taking the absolute value of the seismic trace or taking a trace derivative followed by taking it’s absolute value.

Low pass filtering is sometimes required to reduce high-frequency noise.

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Comparison of amplitude and enhanced seismic data
Comparison of amplitude and enhanced seismic data behavior for apertures above ~0.05 mm

In general, data prep is an iterative process

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


The derivative enhances high frequency content and introduces a 90 o phase shift
The derivative enhances high frequency content and introduces a 90o phase shift

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Absolute value doubles apparent spectral content
Absolute value doubles apparent spectral content introduces a 90

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Extracted discontinuities
Extracted discontinuities introduces a 90

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Ne oriented discontinuities are interpreted to arise from right lateral transpressional shear
NE oriented discontinuities are interpreted to arise from right lateral transpressional shear

S1 Fault

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Incorporating possible influence of curvature on dominant fracture aperture
Incorporating possible influence of curvature on dominant fracture aperture

Maximum directional curvature orthogonal to the dominant open fracture set & SHmax.

SHmax

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Potential compartmentalization within the reservoir suggested by production distribution
Potential compartmentalization within the reservoir suggested by production distribution

5 yr cumulative production

(Smith, 2008)

Log 10 yr cumulative production

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Volume probe through combined discontinuity and directional curvature volume
Volume probe through combined discontinuity and directional curvature volume

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Composite driver development
Composite driver development curvature volume

  • Discontinuities and directional curvature were extracted from 3D seismic.

  • Conditional statements were used to zero-out high-scoring discontinuities and isolate positive curvature.

  • Only regions with positive curvature were incorporated in the intensity driver.

  • Discontinuity and curvature parameters were upscaled into a model grid and combined to produce an intensity driver that could be used to control the distribution of fractures in the reservoir.

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Intensity distribution
Intensity distribution curvature volume

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Drilling strategy
Drilling strategy curvature volume

producer

Production lateral

injector

CO2 injection lateral

Dominant open fracture trend

SHmax

SHmax

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Workflow integration
Workflow integration curvature volume

Continued from Discontinuity Detection Workflow

Image log

Field analog

3D seismic

Derived 3D Discontinuity Volume

Analyze Distributions of Dominant Open Fracture Trends

Examine directional Curvature at Scale of Seismic Discontinuities

Incorporate Analysis of Field Data to Help Constrain Length, Height and Spacing Distributions

Estimate Aperture Distribution

Identify potential for compartmentalization

Determine Orientation of Shmax from Drilling Induced fractures or Breakouts

Manipulate Attribute Values to Highlight Low and High Permeability regions in Reservoir

Upscale and Combine to Provide Fracture Intensity Driver

Develop DFN

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Novel aspects of the approach
Novel aspects of the approach curvature volume

  • The new driver addresses the possibility that NE oriented higher-score discontinuities may represent low permeability zones that could compartmentalize the reservoir; and,

  • use of maximum directional curvature orthogonal to the more prevalent N76oW hinge-oblique open fracture set in the reservoir focuses on that curvature component that could enhance apertures of the dominant fractures set. Curvature in this direction acts in tandem with the orientation of SHmax inferred from induced fractures observed in the fracture image logs to enhance permeability in the N76W trend.

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Recent paper and meeting preparations
Recent paper and meeting preparations curvature volume

Developing a strategy for CO2 EOR in an unconventional reservoir using 3D seismic attribute workflows and fracture image logs: Paper submitted for presentation at the Annual SEG meeting, Sept., 2013, Thomas H. Wilson, National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University; Valerie Smith, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Alan Brown, Schlumberger NExT, 5p.

Characterization of Tensleep reservoir fracture systems using outcrop analog, fracture image logs and 3D seismic: Abstract submitted for presentation at the Annual AAPG Rocky Mountain Section meeting, Thomas H. Wilson, National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University; Valerie Smith, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Alan Brown, Schlumberger NExT

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Future work 1 carry through to simulation or
Future work curvature volume1. carry through to simulation, or

Seismic analysis

Image log analysis

Reservoir Engineering

Field analog

Bring in additional field observations: Alcova and Granite Mountain Anticlines

Devise methods for incorporating results from seismic analysis into FRACGEN model

Bring in production data

Develop DFN in FRACGEN

Bring in reservoir parameters (Smith, 2008)

Incorporate in ROM

Simulation and history matching

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


Future work 2 carry through to simulation in alternative unconventional reservoir
Future work curvature volume2. carry through to simulation in alternative unconventional reservoir

The reservoir characterization workflows presented here can be extended to other reservoirs as needed to support NETL priorities.

DFN’s, although not presented as part of today’s discussions, have been developed for numerous reservoirs. The methodologies are adaptable and can be readily applied to new settings given sufficient data.

Tom Wilson, Department of Geology and Geography


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