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Solitary and heterosexual behaviors. Masturbation Fantasy Shared sexual behavior. Masturbation. Historical and religious views A statistical analysis Myths and facts. Historical and religious views. Practiced by many ancient peoples Greek and Egyptian artwork

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Solitary and heterosexual behaviors l.jpg

Solitary and heterosexual behaviors

Masturbation

Fantasy

Shared sexual behavior


Masturbation l.jpg
Masturbation

  • Historical and religious views

  • A statistical analysis

  • Myths and facts


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Historical and religious views

  • Practiced by many ancient peoples

    • Greek and Egyptian artwork

    • Diogenes’ praise of masturbation

  • Not explicitly mentioned in Scripture

    • Forbidden in Talmud for men

      • A capital offense

    • Some Scriptures have been applied to masturbation


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The modern era

  • S.A.D. Tissot (1741): Onanism and the medicalization of sex

  • Victorian concerns with health

    • Loss of stamina and energy

    • Stress on the nervous system

    • Imbalance of fluids

  • Krafft-Ebing linked masturbation with insanity


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Effects of masturbation (1904)

  • …loss of memory and intelligence, morose and unequal disposition, aversion or indifference to legitimate pleasures and sports…stupid stolidity, etc.” (Walling)


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Child-rearing in the late 1800s

  • Children are not naturally sexual.

  • They learn sexual interest through evil companions.

  • Alarms would alert the parents if the child touched his penis

  • Cages were available to keep hands away

  • Spiked rings produced pain if an erection occurred: Nocturnal emissions were wrong, too.


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The American variant: Health foods

  • Sylvester Graham, C.W. Post, and Harvey Kellogg

  • The Boy Scout Handbook warned against masturbation until the late 1970s

  • Circumcision became popular in the belief that it would reduce masturbation.


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Current religious views

  • Judaism: Varies with branch

  • Islam: A sin, although the point is argued.

  • Roman Catholicism: “An intrinsically and seriously disordered act.”

  • Mainline Protestantism: Not a moral issue


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Conservative Protestantism: In disarray.

  • Tson and Hayford vs. Dobson

  • Houghton College Counseling Center

  • Donald Joy

  • Some argue that it is the lust that is wrong.

  • Some argue that it is homosexual behavior.

  • Some argue that it is against the sense of Scripture.


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Attitudes toward masturbation

In my opinion,

masturbation is

Right

Wrong

Amoral

No opinion

1988

(N=29)

3 (10%)

6 (21%)

15 (52%)

5 (17%)

1995

(N=20)

12 (60%)

2 (10%)

2 (10%)

4 (20%)

Note: Class members responded anonymously

and voluntarily. Not all class members chose

to respond. Sample bias?


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Church attitudes about masturbation, 1999 (N = 16)

Printed or official policy 0

Addressed from the pulpit 0

Small group/counseling topic 8

Never addressed 4

Positive and affirming 0

Permissive with warning 1

Discouraging 8

Prohibitive 2

No guidance 5


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Current social views

  • The last taboo: Woody Allen and Jerry Seinfeld

  • NHSLS (1994) special methodology

  • “OK unless done to excess”

  • “Could be inappropriate” -- especially if married

  • 50% of practitioners feel guilty afterward

    • Why?


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A statistical analysis

  • More men (>90%) than women (65-89%)

  • More educationmore masturbation

  • White, educated liberals most likely to

  • Devoutly religious folks masturbate less

  • 18-24 year olds masturbate less than 25-54 year olds

  • 50% of each gender feel guilty about it, but guilt inhibits masturbation only in women


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More statistics

  • 85% of men and 45% of women married or cohabiting had masturbated in the past twelve months

  • 60% of men and 40% of women overall had masturbated in the past twelve months

  • Conclusion?


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NHSLS reasons for masturbation

ReasonMenWomen

To relax 26 32

To relieve sexual tension 73 63

Partners unavailable 32 32

Partner unwilling 16 6

Boredom 11 5

Physical pleasure 40 42

Get to sleep 16 12

Fear of AIDS or other STDs 5 5


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Fantasy

  • Primary fantasy

  • Fantasy to facilitate masturbation

    • When is it lust?

  • Shared fantasy for sexual arousal


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Shared sexual behavior

  • Touching: When is it sexual?

  • Hugging and kissing

  • Caressing, fondling, stroking skin

  • Genital stimulation

    • Manual

    • Oral: Fellatio and cunnilingus

    • Genital apposition: “Dry-docking”, “outercourse”


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Intercourse

  • Vaginal: Significant risk for HIV and STD transmission

  • Anal: High risk for HIV transmission

  • Surface

    • Interfemoral

    • Intermammary

    • Intergluteal

  • 1001 Positions


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Appeal of various sexual practices, NHSLS, ages 18-44

(% rating very or somewhat appealing)

PracticeWomenMen

Vaginal intercourse 96 95

Watching partner disrobe 81 93

Receiving oral sex 68 83

Giving oral sex 57 76

Anal intercourse 5 14

What is the role of negative associations?


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Caveats for oral-genital contact

  • Basic hygeine is essential

  • STDs, including HIV can be transmitted

  • Non-STD infections may also occur

    • Bacterial infections of the throat

    • Infections of the genitals from mouth bacteria

    • Semen from infected prostates may be dangerous

  • Do not blow!

  • The effectiveness of barriers is unknown.


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