Ethics the study of right and wrong
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Ethics: The Study of Right and Wrong. The Ancients (5th-4th Centuries BC) Socrates, Plato, Aristotle The Moderns (17th-19th Centuries) Descartes, Hume, Kant Contemporary Schools(20th Century) Positivism, Existentialism, Pragmatism. Instructions:

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Ethics: The Study of Right and Wrong

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Ethics the study of right and wrong

Ethics:The Study of Right and Wrong

  • The Ancients (5th-4th Centuries BC)

    • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

  • The Moderns (17th-19th Centuries)

    • Descartes, Hume, Kant

  • Contemporary Schools(20th Century)

    • Positivism, Existentialism, Pragmatism


Descriptive ethics the study of actual codes of conduct

Lowell Kleiman

  • Instructions:

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Descriptive Ethics: The Study of Actual Codes of Conduct

  • History

  • Cross-Cultural Anthropology

  • Ethnic Studies


Normative ethics the study of the universally valid code of conduct

Normative Ethics:The Study of the Universally Valid Code ofConduct

Ethnocentrism

There is a Universally Valid Code.

We have it.

The Ethnocentric Fallacy

Error of Judging Others By Standard Not Their Own

Mathematics as a Normative Model

Mathnocentrism

The Mathnocentric Fallacy?

Moral Skepticism

Metaphysical Certainty

Common Sense Fallibility

Lowell Kleiman

  • Instructions:

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Ethical theory

Ethical Theory

  • Religious Authoritarianism

    • It is right if sanctioned by deity.

    • Is something right because God says so, or does God say so because it is right?

  • Individualism

    • Egotism

      If it suits me, it is right.

    • Egoism

      If it suits the agent, it is right.

      • The Prisoner’s Dilemma

      • Morality as a set of agreements that optimize, not maximize, self-interest.


Ethical theory cont

Ethical Theory (Cont.)

  • Utilitarianism

    • Act

      It is right if it leads to more good than harm.

    • Rule

      It is right if it leads to more good than harm as a rule.

  • Traditional Moralism

    • Established Morality

      It is right if it is the custom.


Ethical theory cont1

Traditional Moralism (Cont.)

The Categorical Imperative

If it is right, it is universalizable;

It treats others as an end-in-themselves, not just as a means to an end;

It is motivated by a sense of duty defined by the moral law.

Pragmatism

If, at the end of inquiry, we say it is right, it is right.

From moral skepticism to common sense fallibilism as practical necessity.

Ethical Theory (Cont.)


Applied ethics

Applied Ethics

  • Biomedical

  • Business

  • Legal

  • Science

  • Virtual (Computer) Ethics


Metaethics the study of the foundations of normative ethics

Lowell Kleiman

  • Instructions:

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  • Create document in Word.

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MetaEthics: The Study of the Foundations of Normative Ethics

  • Subjectivism

    Morality as in the eye of the beholder.

  • Objectivism

    Morality as a matter of fact.

  • Positivism

    Morality as venting.


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