ethics the study of right and wrong
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Ethics: The Study of Right and Wrong. The Ancients (5th-4th Centuries BC) Socrates, Plato, Aristotle The Moderns (17th-19th Centuries) Descartes, Hume, Kant Contemporary Schools(20th Century) Positivism, Existentialism, Pragmatism. Instructions:

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ethics the study of right and wrong
Ethics:The Study of Right and Wrong
  • The Ancients (5th-4th Centuries BC)
    • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • The Moderns (17th-19th Centuries)
    • Descartes, Hume, Kant
  • Contemporary Schools(20th Century)
    • Positivism, Existentialism, Pragmatism
descriptive ethics the study of actual codes of conduct
Lowell Kleiman
  • Instructions:
  • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows:
  • Create document in Word.
  • Return to PowerPoint.
  • From Insert Menu, select Object…
  • Click “Create from File”
  • Locate File name in “File” box
  • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked.
  • Click OK
  • Select icon
  • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings.
  • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit”
  • Click OK
Descriptive Ethics: The Study of Actual Codes of Conduct
  • History
  • Cross-Cultural Anthropology
  • Ethnic Studies
normative ethics the study of the universally valid code of conduct
Normative Ethics:The Study of the Universally Valid Code ofConduct

Ethnocentrism

There is a Universally Valid Code.

We have it.

The Ethnocentric Fallacy

Error of Judging Others By Standard Not Their Own

Mathematics as a Normative Model

Mathnocentrism

The Mathnocentric Fallacy?

Moral Skepticism

Metaphysical Certainty

Common Sense Fallibility

Lowell Kleiman

  • Instructions:
  • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows:
  • Create document in Word.
  • Return to PowerPoint.
  • From Insert Menu, select Object…
  • Click “Create from File”
  • Locate File name in “File” box
  • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked.
  • Click OK
  • Select icon
  • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings.
  • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit”
  • Click OK
ethical theory
Ethical Theory
  • Religious Authoritarianism
    • It is right if sanctioned by deity.
    • Is something right because God says so, or does God say so because it is right?
  • Individualism
    • Egotism

If it suits me, it is right.

    • Egoism

If it suits the agent, it is right.

        • The Prisoner’s Dilemma
        • Morality as a set of agreements that optimize, not maximize, self-interest.
ethical theory cont
Ethical Theory (Cont.)
  • Utilitarianism
    • Act

It is right if it leads to more good than harm.

    • Rule

It is right if it leads to more good than harm as a rule.

  • Traditional Moralism
    • Established Morality

It is right if it is the custom.

ethical theory cont1
Traditional Moralism (Cont.)

The Categorical Imperative

If it is right, it is universalizable;

It treats others as an end-in-themselves, not just as a means to an end;

It is motivated by a sense of duty defined by the moral law.

Pragmatism

If, at the end of inquiry, we say it is right, it is right.

From moral skepticism to common sense fallibilism as practical necessity.

Ethical Theory (Cont.)
applied ethics
Applied Ethics
  • Biomedical
  • Business
  • Legal
  • Science
  • Virtual (Computer) Ethics
metaethics the study of the foundations of normative ethics
Lowell Kleiman
  • Instructions:
  • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows:
  • Create document in Word.
  • Return to PowerPoint.
  • From Insert Menu, select Object…
  • Click “Create from File”
  • Locate File name in “File” box
  • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked.
  • Click OK
  • Select icon
  • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings.
  • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit”
  • Click OK
MetaEthics: The Study of the Foundations of Normative Ethics
  • Subjectivism

Morality as in the eye of the beholder.

  • Objectivism

Morality as a matter of fact.

  • Positivism

Morality as venting.

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