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Valerie Whittlesey Increasing Student Learning of Diversity in Psychology. SEPA Meeting March, 2006. Outline. Reasons for Teaching about Diversity Issues in Psychology Attitudes and Experiences of Psychology Faculty in Teaching about Diversity & Recommendations

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Valerie whittlesey increasing student learning of diversity in psychology

Valerie WhittleseyIncreasing Student Learning of Diversity in Psychology

SEPA Meeting

March, 2006


Outline
Outline

  • Reasons for Teaching about Diversity Issues in Psychology

  • Attitudes and Experiences of Psychology Faculty in Teaching about Diversity & Recommendations

  • Reviewing Diversity Research in Teaching of Psychology & Recommendations

  • Conclusion


Importance of teaching about diversity
Importance of Teaching about Diversity

  • Allows students to be fair and equitable in their interactions with other people

  • Helps prepare students for employment in an increasingly pluralistic society after college

  • Makes psychology more relevant for all students


Importance of teaching about diversity1
Importance of Teaching about Diversity

  • May encourage students from all backgrounds to enter the psychology profession

  • Will increase students’ knowledge of psychology

  • Will enrich students’ emotional and personal development


Teaching diversity experiences and recommendations of apa division two members

Teaching Diversity: Experiences and Recommendations of APA Division Two Members

Jane Simoni, Kathy Sexton-Radek, Karen Yescavage, Harriette Richard, Alene Lundquist


Diversity survey purpose
Diversity Survey- Purpose Division Two Members

  • Descriptive data on respondents, their institutions, and students

  • Respondents’ attitudes toward teaching diversity issues

  • Respondents’ recommendations for diversity resources


Teaching diversity survey
Teaching Diversity Survey Division Two Members

  • Survey distributed to Division 2 members in 1995

  • Survey sent to 2,108 members

  • 703 members responded

  • Return rate- 33%


Diversity survey demographics

14% Asst. Professor Division Two Members

23% Assoc. Professor

37% Full Professor

5% Emeritus

8% Teachers

6% Adjunct Instructors

1% Visiting Professors

6% Other Positions

Diversity Survey- Demographics


Diversity survey demographics1

33% Liberal arts college Division Two Members

20% Community college

11% Technical institution

11% Research university

19% Comprehensive university

6% high school

Diversity Survey- Demographics


Diversity survey demographics2

40%- Less than 3,000 students Division Two Members

19%- 3,000- 4,999 students

12%- 5,000- 6,999 students

11%- 7,000- 9,999 students

18%- Greater than 10,000 students

Diversity Survey- Demographics


Diversity survey demographics3
Diversity Survey- Demographics Division Two Members

  • 37% Suburban institution

  • 32% Urban institution

  • 29% Rural institution


Diversity survey demographics4
Diversity Survey- Demographics Division Two Members

  • 27% Midwest

  • 21% Mid-Atlantic

  • 21% South

  • 9% West

  • 7% New England


Diversity survey demographics5
Diversity Survey- Demographics Division Two Members

  • 80% White students

  • 10% African American students

  • 6% Hispanic students

  • 3% Asian American students

  • 1% Native American students


Diversity studies demographics
Diversity Studies- Demographics Division Two Members

  • 62% Women

  • 38% Men


Diversity study multicultural courses taught
Diversity Study- Multicultural Courses Taught Division Two Members

  • 12% Psychology of Gender

  • 2% Psychology of Minority Groups

  • 2% Racism and Sexism in America

  • 3% Women and Society

  • 15% taught one of four multicultural courses


Diversity survey importance of diversity education in courses
Diversity Survey- Importance of Diversity Education in Courses

  • 1 (not important)

  • 5 (of major importance)

  • Mean- 3.94

  • SD- .86

  • Between 3 (somewhat important) to 4 (important)


Diversity survey time allotted to discussion of diversity
Diversity Survey- Time Allotted to Discussion of Diversity Courses

  • 14%- One class period

  • 40%- A couple of classes

  • 20%- A couple of weeks

  • 13%- Most of course


Diversity survey issues of diversity

89% Ethnicity and social class Courses

77% Ageism

73% Appreciation of diversity

71% All sexual orientations

40% Cultural isms

12% Gender perspectives

Diversity Survey- Issues of Diversity


Diversity survey goals in teaching diversity issues

85% Heighten sensitivity and awareness Courses

77% Broaden understanding of human condition

72% Tolerance

44% Enhance psychological mindedness

32% Expose personal perspectives

13% Political action

8% Other

Diversity Survey- Goals in Teaching Diversity Issues


Diversity survey pedagogical methods to attain goals

69% Lectures & discussions Courses

57% Textbook readings

49% Field trips and discussions

39% Other

38% Guest speakers

37% Selected readings

35% Student Presentations

28% Videotape and discussions

25% Research papers

Diversity Survey- Pedagogical Methods to Attain Goals


Diversity survey barriers aids and successful strategies
Diversity Survey-Barriers, Aids, and Successful Strategies Courses

  • Three open-ended items about barriers, facilitating factors, and successful strategies

  • Two raters & content analysis of respones

  • Interrater reliability (.90 to .94)


Diversity survey barriers
Diversity Survey- Barriers Courses

  • 27% Incorporating diversity issues into courses was not relevant

  • 23% Time constraints


Diversity survey barriers con t

25%- No barriers Courses

Most barriers listed by less than 10% of respondents

Student apprehension

Lack of adequate resources

College univ. curriculum

Professor inadequacy

Low department support

Campus climate

Heightened tension

Community climate

Diversity Survey- Barriers (con’t)


Diversity survey facilitating factors

30% Resource rooms & books Courses

17% Workshops

Less than 10%

College curriculum

Videotapes

Campus climate

Community perception

Student attitudes

Parental attitudes

Diversity Survey- Facilitating Factors


Diversity survey successful strategies

18% Discussion Courses

14% Experiential activities

11% Cross-disciplinary approaches

Less than 10%

Student presentations

Campus-wide activities

Media presentations

Community activities

Papers

Journal articles

Diversity Survey- Successful Strategies


Teaching diversity experiences and recommendations of apa division two members follow up study

Teaching Diversity: Experiences and Recommendations of APA Division Two MembersFollow-Up Study

Loreto Prieto, Val Whittlesey, Diane Herbert, Carlota Ocampo, Allison Schomburg, and Dominicus So


Diversity survey follow up study
Diversity Survey- Division Two MembersFollow-Up Study

  • Survey distributed to Division 2 members in 2000

  • Survey sent to approximately 3,000 members

  • 648 members responded

  • Return rate- 22%


Diversity study follow up study
Diversity Study- Division Two MembersFollow-Up Study

  • Although the return rate was lower than original study, the demographic institutional, campus, and course based characteristics of the 2000 sample match known population parameters of 2002 STP membership survey.

  • Also, descriptive data on respondents, their institutions, and students similar to 1995 study.

  • Results similar to 1995 study; respondents’ attitudes toward teaching diversity issues and recommendations for diversity resources.


Diversity survey follow up issues of diversity

94% Race/ethnicity Division Two Members

94% Sexual orientation

91% Sex/gender

86% Ageism

82% Social class

78% Physical disabilities

78% Religion

73% International

70% Mental/learning disabilities

66% Language differences

Diversity Survey- Follow-Up Issues of Diversity


Diversity survey follow up barriers

57% Time constraints Division Two Members

36% Lack of perceived training/resources

21% Diversity issues are not relevant to course content

18% Student apprehension about dealing with diversity issues

Diversity Survey-Follow-UpBarriers


Diversity survey follow up study1
Diversity Survey- Division Two MembersFollow-Up Study

  • For the follow-up study, faculty respondents were additionally asked four questions:

    - their own personal level of acceptance toward diverse persons

    (broadly defined)

    - the level of importance they attached to incorporating diversity issues

    into their courses

    - their estimation of the level of importance their students attached to

    having diversity issues incorporated into courses

    - the level of acceptance they have felt from their students when

    diversity issues have been incorporated into courses


Diversity survey follow up study2
Diversity Survey- Division Two MembersFollow-Up Study

  • Each item was constructed on a 5-point Likert scale with Not accepting/not important and Very accepting/very important as polar anchors.


Diversity survey follow up study3

Faculty acceptance of diverse persons (mean = 4.7; sd = .53).

Faculty perceptions of the importance of incorporating diversity issues into their coursework (mean = 4.2; sd = .94).

Faculty perceptions of the importance their students attach to having diversity issues incorporated into their courses (mean = 3.4; sd = .99).

Faculty perceptions of the acceptance of students to incorporation of diversity issues into course work when instructors included it (mean = 3.9; sd = .82).

Diversity Survey- Follow-Up Study


Diversity survey recommendations of both studies

Ensuring that more psychology faculty see the relevance of diversity issues in the psychology curriculum.

Overcoming time constraints and lack of training and knowledge of diversity that faculty feel.

Need to focus on all facets of diversity.

Examining directly student attitudes of the importance they attach to incorporation of diversity into course work and their acceptance of this incorporation.

Diversity Survey-Recommendations of Both Studies


Review of diversity research in teaching of psychology summary agenda

Review of Diversity Research in Teaching of Psychology: Summary & Agenda

Carlota Ocampo, Jane O’Connor, Loreto Prieto, Val Whittlesey


Diversity review
Diversity Review Summary & Agenda

  • David Johnson’s database obtained from the webpage of the Office for Teaching Resources in Psychology

  • www.lemoyne.edu/OTRP/index.html

  • Used to identify TOP works published from 1974 to 1999

  • Authors manually consulted TOP 2000 issues


Diversity review diversity categories

Aging Summary & Agenda

Disability

Gender

International

Nontraditional students

Race/ethnic

Several diversity categories

Sexual orientation

Social class

Religion

Diversity Review- Diversity Categories


Diversity review taxonomy of methodologies

Activities Summary & Agenda

Articles

Bibliographies

Comments

Course descriptions

Demonstrations

Empiricals

Equipment

Reviews

Software

Surveys

Symposias

Interviews

Diversity Review- Taxonomy of Methodologies


Diversity review raters
Diversity Review- Raters Summary & Agenda

  • .91 Interrater agreement coefficient in determining which articles were diversity related

  • .97 Interrrater agreement coefficient in determining the diversity category that the articles fit into

  • .90 Interrater agreement coefficient in determining the methodology for the diversity studies



Diversity review diversity categories of studies

35% Gender Summary & Agenda

17% International

13% Aging

12% Several categories

10% Race/ethnicity

10% Sexual orientation

3% Nontraditional students

0% Social class

0% Disability

0% Religion

Diversity Review- Diversity Categories of Studies


Diversity review methodologies of diversity studies

30% Articles Summary & Agenda

25% Courses

19% Activities

10% Empiricals

5% Comments

4% Surveys

3% Demos

2% Interviews

1% Software

0% Bibliographies

0% Equipment

0% Reviews

0% Symposias

Diversity Review- Methodologies of Diversity Studies


Diversity review frequent diversity methodologies

International articles- N = 12 Summary & Agenda

Gender courses- N = 11

Gender empirical studies- N = 10

Gender classroom activities- N = 9

Gender articles- N = 8

Several diversity category articles- N = 7

Aging classroom activities- N = 7

Racial/ethnic courses- N = 6

Diversity Review- Frequent Diversity Methodologies


Diversity review1
Diversity Review- Summary & Agenda

  • The 70 works in the previous slide represent 50% of all diversity studies published in TOP between 1974 to 2000

  • Publications concerning gender issues constitute 38 or 28% of total diversity works


Diversity review2
Diversity Review Summary & Agenda

  • 28 diversity empirical works represented 1.5% of all published works in TOP and 21% of diversity studies published in TOP from 1974-2000

  • Eight (28.5%) of empirical diversity articles during the earlier period

  • 20 (71.4%) of empirical diversity articles during the latter period


Diversity review empirical diversity studies

Gender (17; 61%) Summary & Agenda

Sexual orientation (4;14%)

Aging (3;11%)

General diversity (3;11%)

International (1;3.5%)

Diversity Review- Empirical Diversity Studies


Diversity review empirical diversity studies1
Diversity Review- Empirical Diversity Studies Summary & Agenda

  • One-third of studies exploratory in nature

  • Gender based issues offered more information regarding previous findings or theory related to study in question


Diversity review recommendations
Diversity Review- Recommendations Summary & Agenda

  • Increase amount and programmatic focus of diversity research

  • Increase theory driven empirical research using experimental design

  • Continued attention to differential impact of teaching curriculum, materials, and methods on diversity


Diversity review recommendations con t
Diversity Review- Recommendations (con’t) Summary & Agenda

  • Increased use on development of instruments to measure diversity teaching goals

  • Increased examination of underexamined groups

  • Increased knowledge about psychology and its ability to address diversity issues

  • Increased understanding of and support of diverse psychology professoriate


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