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Noun. 名 词. 一、中考考查重点. 可数名词与不可数名词 名词的单数与复数 名词所有格 4. 主谓一致. 名词的定义:表示人、事物、地方、现象及其他抽象概念名称的名词。. 个体名词 ( 如: teacher 教师 ) 集体名词 ( 如: police 警察 ). 可数名词 {. {. 名词 { 专有名词(如: Tom 、 China 、 the United States,January,Monday ). 普通名词. 物质名词 ( 如: water 水 ) 抽象名词 ( 如 :happiness 幸福 ). 不可数名 {.

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Noun

Noun


Noun

名 词

一、中考考查重点

可数名词与不可数名词

名词的单数与复数

名词所有格

4. 主谓一致


Noun

名词的定义:表示人、事物、地方、现象及其他抽象概念名称的名词。

个体名词(如:teacher教师)

集体名词(如:police警察)

可数名词{

{

名词{

专有名词(如:Tom、China、 the United States,January,Monday)

普通名词

物质名词(如: water水)

抽象名词(如:happiness幸福)

不可数名{


Noun

规则变化

可数名词的复数形式

A.绝大多数名词的复数形式在单数形式后加-S

cap---caps task---tasks star---stars tree---trees stomach---stomaches house---houses exercise---exercises

B.以字母x、s 、ch、 sh 结尾的名词在其后加-es

bus---buses box---boxes watch---watches

dish---dishes class---classes

C.(1)以辅音字母+ y结尾的名词需把y 变为i再加-es

story—stories baby—babies country—countries

party—parties

(2)以元音字母+ y结尾的名词在后面直接加-s

day—days boy--- boys toy---toys


Noun

D.以-f 或-fe结尾的可数名词,先将 f 或fe 变成 v 再加-es

shelf---shelves life—lives knife---knives

leaf---leaves wife—wives half—halves

特殊:roof---roofs

E.(1)以元音字母+o结尾的名词,以及某些以 o结尾

的 外来词,变为复数时只加-S

radio—radios zoo---zoos

bamboo--bamboos

(2)以辅音字母+o结尾的名词变为复数+es,

potato---potatoes hero---heroes tomato—tomatoes 但piano—pianos,photo--photos除外.


Noun

不规则变化

特殊变化:

manmen gentlemangentlemen policemanpolicemen womanwomen footfeet toothteeth mousemice child children

单复同形

sheep  sheep fish  fish /fishes

deer deer Chinese  Chinese Japanese  Japanese


Noun

3. 表示“某国人”的名词,其变化有三种情况

a Japanese fiveJapanese ( e.g Chinese )

aFrenchman two Frenchmen

( e.g Englishman Englishwoman fisherman

policeman Frenchwoman )

a German  five Germans

( e.g Russian American Indian Italian Korean )

口诀:中日不变英法变,其余S加后面

4. 常以复数形式出现的名词

集体名词:trousers glasses clothes people police


Noun

5. 复合名词的复数形式

a. 将主体名词变为复数

e.g a boy studentboy students

a flower shopflower shops

a dining room  dining rooms banana tree– banana trees shoe factory– shoe factories

b. 当名词的第一个构成部分为man或woman时,

将2个构成部分均变为复数

e.ga woman teacher  two women teachers

a man nurse  two men nurses


Noun

不可数名词{

物质名词(如: water水)

抽象名词(如:happiness幸福)

常见的不可数名词

1.drink---coffe,milk,tea…

2.food---rice,bread,meat…porridge,tofu,…

3.sugar,salt,pepper,butter…

4.weather---rain,snow,ice,cloud,wind…

5.cotton,silk,wool,mental,paper,wood,glass,plastic

6.English,Chinese,Japanese,French,German…

7.history,maths,science,physics,biology,PE,music,art

8.help,confidence,courage,success,danger,safe

9.work,homework,teamwork,news,money,advice…


Noun

不可数名词没有复数形式

不可数名词 数量的表达法:

通过改变量词形式的方法来表示不可数名词的量

a bottle of milk---two bottles of milk

a piece of meat---three pieces of meat

表示不可数名词量的相关词语还有:some,a lot of ,

much, a little , little, the amount of ,

lots of,enough,plenty of……

巩固练习:

(1)一茶杯茶 (2)一块冰

(3)两公斤肉 (4)五瓶橘汁

(5)半公斤鸡肉 (6)许多瓶牛奶


Noun

既可做不可数名词,又可做可数名词的:

不可数名词 可数名词

paper 纸,考卷 a paper

glass 玻璃 a glass

iron 铁 an iron

room 空间 a room

chicken 鸡肉 a chicken

beauty 美 a beauty

一张报纸

一个玻璃杯

一个熨斗

一个房间

一只小鸡

一个美人


Noun

专有名词:

1.表示人名 如:Jim Kate Li Lei Miss Gao

2.表示地名:如: China USA England Beijing

3.表示星期、月份等时间概念的名称,如:

Sunday Monday Tuesday January February

4.表示中外节日:

国际性节日:New Year May Day Children’s Day

Women’s Day

中国节日: Spring Festival Mid-autumn Day

National Day

西方节日: Christmas Day Easter(复活节)Father’s Day

Mother’s Day Saint Valentine’s Day(情人节)

5. 机构或一些社会团体的名称,它们往往缩写,如:

CCTV UK WTO PRC UFO BBC SOS NBA IQ EQ PE RMB VIP ORBIS


Noun

名词的所有格

名词所有格

1.有生命的东西所有格用’s的形式

Mike’s bag the boy’s knife

2.在词尾有-s,-es的复数名词所有格,只在词尾加’,读音不变

the students’ books the teachers’ office

3.不规则名词复数的所有格,即词尾不是以-s结尾的单词,在词后

加’s , 如: Women’s Day men’s clothes shop

4.如果事物为 2人或2人以上共同所有,在最后一个名词后加-’s;

珍妮和海伦的房间

Jenny and Helen’s room

5.如果事物不是 2人或2人共同所有,而是分别有的,则在 2个名词

后都加-’s

珍妮的房间和海伦的房间

Jenny’s and Helen’s rooms


Noun

6.有些表示时间、距离、国家、城市、团体的等无生

命的东西,也可以加-‘s 构成所有格

2小时路程

北京最好的公园

今日报纸

车站休息室

two hours’ walk

Beijing’s best park

today’s newspaper

the station’s waiting-room

7.表示某人的家、店铺、诊所时,常省略所有格

后面的名词

at my uncle’s = at my uncle’s home

at a tailor’s = at a tailor’s shop

8..无生命的东西一般用“ of +名词”的形式表示其所有格

the door of the room the wall of the park

9. 表示类别的名词作定语,不用所有格

a silk hat cotton cloth

a coffee cup


Noun

名词的所有格 Practice

my teacher’s office

students’ exercise books

Children’s Palace

today’s newspaper

15 minutes’ walk = a 15-minute walk

at the butcher’s = at the butcher’s shop

to Tom’s = to Tom’s house

1 我老师的办公室

2 学生们 的练习本

3 少年宫

4 今天的报纸

5 十五分钟的路程

6 在肉店

7 到汤姆家去


Noun

the capital ofJiangsu

8江苏的省会

9 教室的门

10 我父亲的一个朋友

11 他的两个兄弟

12 爱迪生的一些发明

13 他弟弟的一张照片(照片属于他弟弟)

14 他弟弟的一张照片(照片里的人是他弟弟)

the doors of the classroom

a friend of my father (’s)

two brothers of his

some inventions ofEdison’s

a picture of his brother’s

a picture of his brother


Noun

当class, family, team, group, public 等集体名词做主语时,如果看成一个整体,动词就用单数;看成一个个具体成员时,就用复数。

主谓一致

e.g The class are waiting for her.

Tom’s family _____ rather big.

Tom’s family _________ film fans.

is

are

2.news, maths, politics 表示单数意义,动词用单数。

e.g The news makes her very happy.

Maths ___ not easy for him.

is


Noun

3. 像 chopsticks, shoes, glasses,

trousers等表示复数含义的词,动词用复数。

e.g The shoes are hers.

is

但是: A pair of glasses _____ on the table.

Two pairs of glasses ______ on the table.

are

e.g The police are gathering in the street.

The Chinese people _____ peace.

love

但是: people当“民族”,youth当“男青年”讲时,

有单复数之分

e.g He is a youth of 20.

Many English-speaking peoples _____ this book.

like

4. police, people(人们), youth(青年们) 只有单数形式,

但表示复数意义,动词用复数。


Noun

5.像deer、sheep等单复同形的词,动词单复根据

具体情况定

e.g A deer is over there in the field.

A group of deer ______ over there in the field.

are

was

6. The poet and musician ______ at the party.

The singer and dancer _____ just arrived.

The bread and the butter _______ ready.

Bread and butter ____ her usual breakfast. 涂了黄油的面包

has

are

is


Noun

7. 就近一致原则:

is

There be …e.g. There ___ a book and two apples on the desk.

not only…but also…e.g Not only you but also he ___ right.

either…or e.g Either he or I ____ wrong.

neither…nor e.g Neither she nor I _____ right.

is

am

am

8. Both … and …的谓语动词用复数形式。

e.g. Both he and his father ________ there.

were

9. 表示时间、距离 、金额、度量、书名、国名等的

复数名词,看作整体,动词用单数。

e.g Eight hours of sleep_____ enough for you .

Ten dollars _____ too much to pay.

is

is


Noun

10. each + 单数名词 + and + each + 单数名词

every +单数名词 + and +every + 单数名词

no +单数名词 + and + no + 单数名词

each of + 复数名词

one of + 复数名词

many a + 单数名词

every / each +单数名词+ and + 单数名词

等结构做主语时,动词用单数。

has

e.g.Each boy and each girl ______ seen the film.

No teacher and no student _____ come yet.

Every knife, fork , and spoon ____ to be bought.

Each of the students ______ a dictionary.

has

has

has


Noun

课时训练

NOUN.

选择填空:

() 1. Please give me ______ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of ( ) 2. This table is made of_______. A. many glass B. some glasses C. glasses D. glass ( ) 3.Bill runs fast. He won the  _____ 800 metre race yesterday.

A.boys B.boys’ C.boy D.boy‘s . ( ) 4. Some ______ came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies ( ) 5. In the picture there are many______ and two_______. A. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; foxes

C. sheep; foxes D. sheep;foxs

D

D

B

A

C


Noun

( ) 6. This is not my cap, but my _______.

A. brothersB. brother’sC. brothers’D. brother

( )7.They write most of their_______ in English.

A. business letter B. business letters

C. businesses D. businesses letters

( ) 8. _____are____for cutting things. A. Knife, used B. Knives, using

C. Knife, using D. Knives, used

() 9. John bought_____for himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes

( ) 10.Excuse me, where is the______? A. men's room B. mens' room

C. men's rooms D. men rooms 

B

NOUN.

B

D

A

A


Noun

典型例题解析

NOUN.

1.Several _____ are talking  under the tree.And they are______.

A.woman;children B.woman;child C.women;children

2.—How far is your school from here?

—Not very far.It's about twenty walk.(2000杭州)

A.minute's  B.minutes  C.minutes' 

3. There are three in my family. (2004长春)

A.people B. person C. child

4. Most students can go to college for further in our city.

A. education B. information C.science

5. This is bedroom. The twin sister like it very much.

A. Ann and Jane B. Ann and Jane’s C.Ann’s and Jane’s

C

C

A

A

B


Noun

指点迷津

NOUN.

is

Ten years ______(is ,are) short time for me.

A pair of shoes ______(is, are) under the bed.

The number of the students in our school _____(is ,are) 2,000.

The woman with two children ______( is ,are ) coming here.

Neither he nor I _____(are, am ) an American.

is

is

is

am


Noun

指点迷津

NOUN.

is

6. Maths ______(are, is ) hard to learn for the boy.

7. They are all _______________( woman, teachers ; women teachers).

8. The population of China _______(are, is ) over 1,300,000,000.

9. There are many ______(peoples,people )in the street in summer.

10. One of the students ______(have, has) gone to Shanghai.

women teachers

is

people

has


Noun

NOUN.

典型例题解析

The Browns is going to visit China. ( )

The Browns are going to visit China. ()

The young is dancing there. ( )

The young are dancing there. ( )

Physics are very difficult to learn. ( )

Physics is very difficult to learn. ( )

We have five Germen in this meeting. ( )

We have five Germans in this meeting. ( )

This is one of the English-Chinese dictionary. ( )

This is one of the English-Chinese dictionaries.( )


Noun

完成中考指导-名词

Homework


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