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Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Nazanin Sharifi, Greg Richart. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) . What is HPV ? Taxonomy Symptoms The HPV genome HPV and Cancer Diagnosis Epidemiology Risk factors Treatment/Current Research. Taxonomy. Family: Papillomaviridae Genus: Alphapapillomavirus

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Human papillomavirus hpv

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Nazanin Sharifi, Greg Richart


Human papillomavirus hpv1
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

  • What is HPV ?

  • Taxonomy

  • Symptoms

  • The HPV genome

  • HPV and Cancer

  • Diagnosis

  • Epidemiology

  • Risk factors

  • Treatment/Current Research


Taxonomy
Taxonomy

  • Family: Papillomaviridae

  • Genus:

    • Alphapapillomavirus

      • Approximately 70 species (6, 11,16,18,)

    • Betapapillomavirus

      • Approximately 20 species

    • Gammapapillomavirus

      • 7 species

    • Mupapillomavirus

      • 2 species

    • Nupapillomavirus

      • 1 species


What is hpv
What is HPV?

  • HPV is a double-stranded DNA virus that is a sexually transmitted disease (STD)

  • Over 100 different strains, more than 30 sexually transmittable

  • Targets:

    • Skin and mucosal membranes

      • Oral mucosa

      • Esophagus

      • Larynx (voice box)

      • Trachea (airway)

      • Conjunctiva of the eye

      • Cervix primarily affected, but also vagina, penis, etc. \

      • Hand, Feet,

  • Strains 16 and 18 considered “High Risk,” cancer-causing types

  • Strains 6 and 11 considered “High Risk” and responsible for genital warts


Symptoms of infection
Symptoms of Infection!

  • Typically, no signs of infection

  • Infections usually transient, but can be carried dormant for days/months/years

  • Genital warts may develop weeks or months after initial infection

  • Genital cancer can result from infection



Hpv and cancer
HPV and Cancer

  • Strains 6, 11, 16, and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer and 90% genital warts

  • Strain 16 prevalent in penile carcinoma

  • Viral genes E6 and E7 are oncogenes

    • E6 subjugates cellular p53 protein

    • E7 subjugates cellular pRB protein

    • p53 and pRB are critical for regulation of cancerous cells


Diagnostic tests
Diagnostic tests

  • Pap test should be done approx. 3 years after the onset of sexual activity or earlier

  • Around 55 million Pap tests are performed each year

  • 3.5 million tests show abnormality

  • Pap test should be done once every three years (depending on the test result)

  • To get a free or low-cost Pap test, please call 1800-4-CANCER

  • As of now, there are no diagnostic tests to be done for men

The area where the two types of cells reside is where the sample tissue is taken from and sent out to have PAP test done


Epidemiology
Epidemiology

  • HPV is the most common STD in the US

  • 20 million Americans infected (15% population)

    • Over half infected 15-24 years old

    • Approx. 30% infected with multiple strains

  • 6.2 million new infections each year

  • By age of 50, at least 80% of women will have been infected

  • In 2006, >9,700 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer and 3,700 will die


Risk factors and prevention
Risk Factors and Prevention

  • No “cure” for HPV – prevention most effective

    • Regular gynecological exams

    • Frequent, proper screening for cervical cancer

      • Pap Test (Three years after the onset of sexual activity)

        • Colonoscopy

    • Abstinence

    • Use of condoms

  • Risk Factors:

    • “High risk” sexual activity

    • Smoking

    • Co-infections


Treatment hpv vaccine
Treatment – HPV Vaccine

  • “Gardasil” vaccine Approved by FDA on June 8, 2006

  • Protects against HPV strains 6, 11, 16, and 18

  • Made from non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs)

  • Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends use of vaccine for females 9-26 years of age

  • Cryosurgery - Freezing off the warts

Virus-like particles assembled from L1 protein of HPV16


Treatment current research
Treatment – Current Research

  • RNA Interference

    • Targets high-risk HPV strain 16

    • Inhibits E6 oncogene expression

    • Great potential, but very new (more testing)

  • Blockage of estrogen receptors

    • Estrogen may stimulate HPV oncogene expression

    • Also very new


Resources
Resources

  • “Doorbar Group: Human Papillomavirus.” National Institute for Medical Research. Online Resource. Accessed December 10, 2006. Available at http://www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/virology/doorbar/

  • Human Papillomavirus: HPV Information for Clinicians. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prepared November 2006. PDF available at http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/default.htm

  • “Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Online Resource. Accessed December 10, 2006. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/default.htm

  • Au WW, Abdou-Salama S, Al-Hendy A. Inhibition of Growth of Cervical Cancer Cells Using a Dominant Negative Estrogen Receptor Gene. Gynecologic Oncology. Nov. 28, 2006.

  • Niu XY, Peng ZL, Duan WQ, Wang H, Wang P. Inhibition of HPV 16 E6 oncogene expression by RNA interference in vitro and in vivo.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. March-April, 2006.

  • Higgins GD, Davy M, Roder D, Uzelin DM, Phillips GE, Burrell CJ. Increased Age and Mortality Associated with Cervical Carcinomas Negative for Human Papillomavirus RNA. The Lancet. Oct. 12, 1991.

  • Ortiz, Yarissa. High HPV Concentrations Combined with Cigarette Smoking Significantly Raise Risks of Later Cervical Cancer.American Association for Cancer Research. November 17, 2006.

  • Pics Taken From

    • http://www.uiowa.edu/~oprm/AtlasWIN/C/CondylomaClinf.html

    • http://www.thesahara.net/verrucas_plantar_warts.htm


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