chapter 12 section 1 americans struggle with postwar issues
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CHAPTER 12 Section 1 Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues. MAIN IDEA: A desire for normality after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism. POSTWAR TRENDS. Public exhausted Debate over League of Nations divided America

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chapter 12 section 1 americans struggle with postwar issues

CHAPTER 12 Section 1Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues

MAIN IDEA:

A desire for normality after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism.

postwar trends
POSTWAR TRENDS
  • Public exhausted
  • Debate over League of Nations divided America
  • Returning soldiers faced unemployment or took their old jobs from women and minorities
  • Cost of living doubled
  • Farmers and factory workers suffered as wartime orders diminished
  • NATIVISM- prejudice against foreign-born people
  • ISOLATIONISM- policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs
fear of communism
Fear of Communism
  • COMMUNISM- an economic and political system based on a single party government ruled by a dictatorship
  • Communists put an end to private property, substituting government ownership of factories railroads and other businesses
red scare
RED SCARE
  • 1919 Revolutionaries in Russia overthrew czar
  • Bolsheviks established a communist state
  • RED FLAG
  • Called for a worldwide revolution to abolish capitalism everywhere
  • 70,000 radicals joined the communist party in the U.S
the palmer raids
THE PALMER RAIDS
  • Bombs mailed to government
  • U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer & J. Edgar Hoover hunted for communists, socialists and anarchists
  • ANARCHIST- People who opposed any form of government
  • Trampled people’s rights, invaded homes, jailed without legal counsel
sacco and vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Italian immigrants
  • Anarchists
  • Evaded draft during WWI
  • Arrested and charged with robbery and murder of a factory paymaster
  • Found guilty and sentenced to die
  • 1961 ballistic tests showed the pistol found on Sacco was the one used in the murder but no proof that Sacco pulled the trigger
limiting immigration
LIMITING IMMIGRATION
  • “Keep America for Americans”
  • The need for unskilled workers in America decreased
  • Klu Klux Klan (KKK)-100% Americanism
  • 1924 reached 4.5 million
  • Drove foreign born out of the country
  • QUOTA SYSTEM- Emergency Quota Act 1921-established the maximum # of people who could enter the U.S
a time of labor unrest
A TIME OF LABOR UNREST
  • During war strikes were limited b/c they disrupt production
  • Employers did not want to give raises
  • 4 million walked off the job
  • BOSTON POLICE STRIKE- police had not been given a raise since beginning of WWI
    • Denied right to unionize
    • When asked for a raise=fired
    • Coolidge declared no right to strike
    • New officers were hired
slide9
STEEL MILL STRIKE
    • Workers wanted the right to negotiate for shorter working hours
    • Wanted union recognition and bargaining rights
    • US Steel corporation refused to meet with union leaders
    • 300,000 walked off the job
    • Hired strike breakers/agreed to work during strike
    • Striking workers beaten by police
    • Linked strikers to communists
    • Ended Jan. 1920 w/ 8 hour day but without a union
coal miners strike
COAL MINERS’ STRIKE
  • John L. Lewis-leader of The United Mine Workers of America
  • Protested low wages and long workdays
  • Nov. 1, 1919 Strike, Attorney General ordered them back to work
  • President Wilson appointed and arbitrator to settle the dispute
  • Miners received a 27% wage increase
  • John L. Lewis became a national hero
labor movement loses appeal
LABOR MOVEMENT LOSES APPEAL
  • Union membership declined because…
    • Much of the workforce consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions
    • Immigrants spoke in multiple languages so unions were hard to organize
    • Farmers were use to relying on themselves
    • Most unions excluded African Americans
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