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CELLS. The basic units of life. Cells:. All living things are made of one or more cells. A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all the necessary functions of life. An organism can be made of just one cell (e.g. euglena) or many (humans). Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes.

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Cells

CELLS

The basic units of life


Cells1
Cells:

  • All living things are made of one or more cells.

  • A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all the necessary functions of life.



Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes many (humans)

  • Cells are divided into two groups:

  • Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms without a nucleus or membrane bound organelles; bacteria

  • Eukaryotes: all organisms besides bacteria.


Cell organelles
Cell Organelles many (humans)

  • All eukaryotic cells have parts that work together to keep the cell alive.

  • These parts are called organelles.


Cell wall
*Cell Wall* many (humans)

  • Only found in plants.

  • Rigid structure that gives support and shape to a cell.


Cell membrane
Cell Membrane many (humans)

  • A protective barrier that controls what does in and out of the cell.


Chloroplasts
*Chloroplasts* many (humans)

  • Makes sugar for plants through photosynthesis


Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm many (humans)

  • Watery, gel-like material

  • Holds the organelles of the cell


Nucleus
Nucleus many (humans)

  • Contains the DNA which controls how to make the cell’s proteins.


Ribosomes
Ribosomes many (humans)

  • Make proteins

  • Smallest organelles in a cell

  • Can be floating freely in the cytoplasm or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.)


Endoplasmic reticulum e r
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) many (humans)

  • Makes lipids (fats) and delivers proteins

  • Two parts:

    1. Rough E.R. - studded with ribosomes; closest to nucleus

    2. Smooth E.R. - mainly makes lipids


Golgi apparatus
*Golgi Apparatus* many (humans)

  • Packages and distributes materials.

  • Acts as the warehouse that sorts and ships.


Lysosomes
*Lysosomes* many (humans)

  • Carry out cellular digestion; clean up cell

  • Digests food particles, wastes, old cell parts, and foreign invaders


Vacuoles
*Vacuoles* many (humans)

  • Stores water and other materials


Mitochondria
Mitochondria many (humans)

  • Breaks down food molecules to make ATP (energy!)


Circle these ones on your notes you will be tested on only these
Circle these ones on your Notes (you will be tested on ONLY these)

  • Cell Wall (plant)

  • Cell Membrane

  • Nucleus

  • Chloroplast (plant)

  • Cytoplasm

  • Mitochondria


Image sources
Image Sources these)

  • http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/images/media/gel_cells.jpg

  • http://pub.ucsf.edu/today/daily/2007/07/S2cells2.jpg

  • http://arnica.csustan.edu/Biol1010/classification/euglena.JPG

  • http://staff.tuhsd.k12.az.us/gfoster/standard/BCELL1_files/image005.jpg

  • http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/thumb/2/25/Mitochondria.gif/400px-Mitochondria.gif

  • http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/media/cell_wall.gif

  • http://www.mcld.co.uk/hiv/images/aEukaryoticCell.gif

  • http://www.daviddarling.info/images/chloroplast.jpg

  • http://sun.menloschool.org/~cweaver/cells/c/cytoplasm/jrcytoplasm.jpg

  • http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ttt356/Nucleus.jpg

  • http://sun.menloschool.org/~birchler/cells/animals/ribosome/ribo.jpg

  • http://www.daviddarling.info/images/endoplasmic_reticulum.jpg

  • http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cbbc/courses/bio4/bio4-1997/images/er.JPG

  • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/golgi/images/golgifigure1.jpg

  • http://employees.csbsju.edu/hjakubowski/classes/ch331/cho/ergolgi.jpeg

  • http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/images/ch1_lysosome.jpg

  • http://student.nu.ac.th/u46410320/vacuole%5B1%5D.jpeg

  • http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/mito.gif


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