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4th International CLIVAR Climate of the 20th Century Workshop , 13-15th March 2007 Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, UK. The 20 th century East Asian summer monsoon simulated by coupled climate models of IPCC AR4. Aiguo DAI National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA.

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Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

4th International CLIVAR Climate of the 20th Century Workshop, 13-15th March 2007 Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, UK

The 20th century East Asian summer monsoon simulated by coupled climate models of IPCC AR4

Aiguo DAI

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA

Tianjun ZHOU

LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

E-mail: [email protected]


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Outline

  • Background

  • Data description

  • Evaluation of the mean states over E. Asia

  • Decadal variability of the EASM

  • Summary


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Background

  • About 25% of humanity inhabits the region of the East Asian monsoon. The economy and society across the region are greatly influenced by the evolution and variability of the monsoon.

  • The East Asian monsoon climate exhibits variability on a variety of time scales.

  • While the interaction of Asian monsoon with the ENSO is well understood, the monsoon interdecadal variability is less well documented and its underlying mechanism is poorly understood.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Data and Approach

  • We analyze the outputs of the 20th century climate simulations (20C3M) of IPCC AR4 coupled models to validate the realism of current state-of-the-art coupled GCMs in catching the present climate over East Asia.

  • We use the model data, combined with observational evidences, to address the question of whether the prescribed external forcing agents have played key roles in the variability of the East Asian monsoon climate in the 20th century.

  • Particularly, we want to know the extent to which the 20th century coupled model integrations can reproduce the interdecadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), with a special focus on the recent (1950-1999) weakening of the EASM, before we apply them to study the underlying mechanisms.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

DATA: 20C3M of IPCC AR4

  • 20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (20C3M). Coordinated by WG1 of IPCC AR4.

  • The 20th century climate simulations are made with various combinations of forcings including greenhouse gases (GHGs), sulfate aerosol effects, and ozone, as well as volcanic aerosols and solar variability.

  • Outputs of 23 coupled models are used in the analyses.

Zhou Tianjun and Rucong Yu, 2006, Twentieth Century Surface Air Temperature over China and the Globe Simulated by Coupled Climate Models, Journal of Climate, 19(22), 5843-5858.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

East Asian summer monsoon components

  • Two Key Parts:

  • WPSH: Z500

  • EA Jet: U200

(Figure from Ding Yihui)

Zhou Tianjun, Zhaoxin Li, 2002, Simulation of the east Asian summer monsoon by using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM, Climate Dynamics,19:167-180

Zhou, T.-J., and R.-C. Yu (2005), Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China, J. Geophys. Res.,10, D08104, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD005413

Zhang, Y., X. Kuang, W. Guo, and T. Zhou, 2006, Seasonal evolution of the upper-tropospheric westerly jet core over East Asia,Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11708, doi:10.1029/2006GL026377


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

The realism of coupled GCMs in catching the present climate (1979-1999 JJA state)?

  • Western Pacific subtropical high (Z500)

  • East Asian westerly jet (U200)

  • Rainfall

  • Assessed by using Taylor Diagram

  • EAR40 is used as Observation.

  • Precipitation Data from GPCP.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Western Pacific subtropical high (Z500), JJA

Shaded: Values lager than 5870 gpm


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Western Pacific subtropical high (Z500), JJA

  • bccr_bcm2_0

  • cccma_cgcm3_1

  • (3) cccma_cgcm3_1_t63

  • (4) cnrm_cm3

  • (5) csiro_mk3_0

  • (6) gfdl_cm2_0

  • (7) gfdl_cm2_1

  • (8) giss_aom

  • (9) giss_model_e_h

  • (10) giss_model_e_r

  • (11) iap_fgoals1_0_g

  • (12) inmcm3_0

  • (13) ipsl_cm4

  • (14) miroc3_2_hires

  • (15) miroc3_2_medres

  • (16) mpi_echam5

  • (17) mri_cgcm2_3_2a

  • (18) ncar_ccsm3_0

  • (19) ncar_pcm1

  • (20) ukmo_hadcm3

  • (21) ukmo_hadgem1


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

East Asian JJA westerly jet (U200)


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

East Asian JJA westerly jet (U200)

  • bccr_bcm2_0

  • cccma_cgcm3_1

  • (3) cccma_cgcm3_1_t63

  • (4) cnrm_cm3

  • (5) csiro_mk3_0

  • (6) gfdl_cm2_0

  • (7) gfdl_cm2_1

  • (8) giss_aom

  • (9) giss_model_e_h

  • (10) giss_model_e_r

  • (11) iap_fgoals1_0_g

  • (12) inmcm3_0

  • (13) ipsl_cm4

  • (14) miroc3_2_hires

  • (15) miroc3_2_medres

  • (16) mpi_echam5

  • (17) mri_cgcm2_3_2a

  • (18) ncar_ccsm3_0

  • (19) ncar_pcm1

  • (20) ukmo_hadcm3

  • (21) ukmo_hadgem1


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

JJA Rainfall


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

JJA Rainfall

  • bcc_cm1

  • bccr_bcm2_0

  • cccma_cgcm3_1

  • cccma_cgcm3_1_t63

  • cnrm_cm3

  • csiro_mk3_0

  • gfdl_cm2_0

  • gfdl_cm2_1

  • giss_aom

  • giss_model_e_h

  • giss_model_e_r

  • iap_fgoals1_0_g

  • inmcm3_0

  • ipsl_cm4

  • (15) miroc3_2_hires

  • (16) miroc3_2_medres

  • (17) mpi_echam5

  • (18) mri_cgcm2_3_2a

  • (19) ncar_ccsm3_0

  • (20) ncar_pcm1

  • (21) ukmo_hadcm3

  • (22) ukmo_hadgem1


Weakened easm in rain gauge data

Weakened EASM in Rain Gauge Data

Normalized time series of JJA precipitation averaged over the Yangtze River and Yellow River

JJA trend in unit of cm/50a from 1958-2000


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Weakened EASM Index in Observations

An EASM index is defined as the summation of SLP difference between 110E and 160E from 10N to 50N. The SLP gradient between the land and the sea for each year is then divided by its climate mean value (hereinafter EASM index)


Easm index in coupled models

EASM index in Coupled Models

Red line is the observation


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Correlation coefficients between the simulated and the observed EASM Index on decadal time scale.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Changes in 850 hPa winds and rainfall

(1980-1999) – (1951-1970)

GFDL-CM2.1

HadGEM1

HadCM3

CCSM3

The GFDL and Hadley Centre model produced a weakened EASM !


Pdf of the weakened easm in gfdl model

PDF of the weakened EASM in GFDL model

PDF from control run

EASM trend for 1950-99 in 20th century run

The EASM weakening should be a forced signal in GFDL model.

Frequency

Trend of the ESAM Index


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Summary

  • Many models have reasonable performances in producing the main monsoon circulations such as the East Asian westerly jet, the western Pacific subtropical high and the low level monsoon circulations. The GFDL model seems to have the best performance.

  • The decadal variations of the EASM in ten models have significant correlations with observations during 1880-1999.

  • For 1950-1999, the EASM indices of nine models are significantly correlated with the observations at time scales longer than 10 years.

  • Only a small number of models, namely the GFDL-CM2.1, IPSL-CM4, and HadCM3, have successfully produced the recent weakening trend of the EASM.

  • The weakening trend of the EASM in GFDL-CM2.1 is shown to be a forced-signal rather than model internal variability.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Summary

  • Many models have reasonable performances in producing the main monsoon circulations such as the East Asian westerly jet, the western Pacific subtropical high and the low level monsoon circulations. The GFDL model seems to have the best performance.

  • The decadal variations of the EASM in ten models have significant correlations with observations during 1880-1999.

  • For 1950-1999, the EASM indices of nine models are significantly correlated with the observations at time scales longer than 10 years.

  • Only a small number of models, namely the GFDL-CM2.1, IPSL-CM4, and HadCM3, have successfully produced the recent weakening trend of the EASM.

  • The weakening trend of the EASM in GFDL-CM2.1 is shown to be a forced-signal rather than model internal variability.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Summary

  • Many models have reasonable performances in producing the main monsoon circulations such as the East Asian westerly jet, the western Pacific subtropical high and the low level monsoon circulations. The GFDL model seems to have the best performance.

  • The decadal variations of the EASM in ten models have significant correlations with observations during 1880-1999.

  • For 1950-1999, the EASM indices of nine models are significantly correlated with the observations at time scales longer than 10 years.

  • Only a small number of models, namely the GFDL-CM2.1, IPSL-CM4, and HadCM3, have successfully produced the recent weakening trend of the EASM.

  • The weakening trend of the EASM in GFDL-CM2.1 is shown to be a forced-signal rather than model internal variability.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Summary

  • Many models have reasonable performances in producing the main monsoon circulations such as the East Asian westerly jet, the western Pacific subtropical high and the low level monsoon circulations. The GFDL model seems to have the best performance.

  • The decadal variations of the EASM in ten models have significant correlations with observations during 1880-1999.

  • For 1950-1999, the EASM indices of nine models are significantly correlated with the observations at time scales longer than 10 years.

  • Only a small number of models, namely the GFDL-CM2.1, IPSL-CM4, and HadCM3, have successfully produced the recent weakening trend of the EASM.

  • The weakening trend of the EASM in GFDL-CM2.1 is shown to be a forced-signal rather than model internal variability.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Summary

  • Many models have reasonable performances in producing the main monsoon circulations such as the East Asian westerly jet, the western Pacific subtropical high and the low level monsoon circulations. The GFDL model seems to have the best performance.

  • The decadal variations of the EASM in ten models have significant correlations with observations during 1880-1999.

  • For 1950-1999, the EASM indices of nine models are significantly correlated with the observations at time scales longer than 10 years.

  • Only a small number of models, namely the GFDL-CM2.1, IPSL-CM4, and HadCM3, have successfully produced the recent weakening trend of the EASM.

  • The weakening trend of the EASM in GFDL-CM2.1 is shown to be a forced-signal rather than model internal variability.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Thank you !

http://web.lasg.ac.cn/CSMDA/papers/017.pdf

http://web.lasg.ac.cn/FGCM/publ/ztj2006a.pdf

Zhou Tianjun and Rucong Yu, 2006, Twentieth Century Surface Air Temperature over China and the Globe Simulated by Coupled Climate Models, Journal of Climate, 19(22), 5843-5858.


Aiguo dai national center for atmospheric research boulder co usa

Reference for Inter-decadal variability of East Asian climate

  • Zhou Tianjun, Aiguo Dai, and Rucong Yu, 2007, The 20th century East Asian summer monsoon simulated by coupled climate models of IPCC AR4, a manuscript

  • Yu R.C., and T.J. Zhou, 2007, Seasonality and three-dimensional structure of the interdecadal change in East Asian monsoon, Journal of Climate, in press

  • Zhou Tianjun and Rucong Yu, 2006, Twentieth Century Surface Air Temperature over China and the Globe Simulated by Coupled Climate Models, Journal of Climate, 19(22), 5843-5858.

  • Xin Xiaoge, Rucong Yu, Tianjun Zhou, and Bin Wang, 2006, Drought in Late Spring of South China in Recent Decades, Journal of Climate, 19(13), 3197-3206.

  • Zhou, T.-J., and R.-C. Yu (2005), Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005413

  • Li Jian, Rucong Yu, Tianjun Zhou, et al. 2005, Why is there an early Spring cooling shift downstream of the Tibetan Plateau, Journal of Climate, 18 (22), 4660–4668

  • Yu Rucong, Bin Wang, and Tianjun Zhou, 2004, Tropospheric cooling and summer monsoon weakening trend over East Asia, Geophysical Research Letters, 31,L22212, doi:10.1029 /2004GL021270

  • Yu Rucong, Tianjun Zhou, 2004, Impacts of winter-NAO on March cooling trends over subtropical Eurasia continent in the recent half century, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L12204, doi:10.1029/2004GL019814.


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