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1. ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????85

2. ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????

20. ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????

21. ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ?????

22. ????? ????? ??

23. ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??

24. ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? (STDP) ??? ???? ???? ?????

25. ????? ???????

27. ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????

28. ????: Conditioning

29. ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???

30. ??? ????????? (Self Organizing) ?? ???????? ?????

31. ??? ????????? (Self Organizing) ?? ???????? ?????

32. ??? ????????? (Self Organizing) ?? ???????? ?????

33. ????? ??? ??????? Applications 1.????? ???? ????? XOR ? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????? (??? ?????) 2.?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? 3. ????? ?? ??????????

34. ?????? 1 ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? XOR ? ????? Pattern Classification ????? ????

35. ????? ?????? ???????? ????

36. ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? : ??? ?????? (Activity Level) : ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???????(Resting Level ) : ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??????(Threshold Level ) : ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???. ?? ????.

37. ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? :

38. ??? ???? :Integrate and Fire ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ????(Refractory Period) ???? ??? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???? clock ????? ?????? ?? ??????? (Threshold-to-resting Difference)

39. ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????

40. ?? ???? : ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ? ????? ???? ?? ????. ?????? ??? ???? ? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????:

41. ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? (deamplificatin) ?????: ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????

42. ????? ????? ????? : ???? ???? Threshold

43. ????? ???? 1 : ???? XOR

44. ????? ???? 2: ???? ????? ????? ????

45. ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????

46. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????: ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ? ?????

47. ?????? ???? :Eckhron

48. ?????? ????: ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???. ????? ????? : ??? ??????? ?????

49. ???? ??????: ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????. ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????. ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????. ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????. ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????.

50. ????? ???? ????:

51. ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????

52. 8 ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? winner-takes-all ?????? ????

53. ????? ????? (???????)

54. ?????: 5 ?????? ??50 ???? ?? ???? ??????. 25 ???? ???? ?????? 25 ???? ???? ???????

55. ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ? ????? ?? ????. ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????. ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? (STDP) ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????. ??? ???? ?????:

56. ????? W.Maass, (1999) “Computing with spiking neurons”. In W. Maass and C. M. Bishop (eds.), Pulsed Neural Networks. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1999. W.Gerstner, (1999) “Spiking Neurons”. In W. Maass and C. M. Bishop (eds.), Pulsed Neural Networks. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1999. R. Kunkle C. Merrigan(2002)” Pulsed Neural Networks and their Application”, Computer Science Dept.College of Computing and Information Sciences. Rochester Institute of Technology. R. Berrędo,(2005)” A Review of Spiking Neuron Models and Applications”, University Federal de Minas Gerais. J.Vreeken,” Spiking neural networks, an introduction”, Adaptive Intelligence Laboratory, Intelligent Systems Group, Institute for Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University. B.Ruf, M. Schmitt,(1998) "Self-Organization of Spiking Neurons Using Action Potential Timing", in IEEE Trans on Neural Networks, Vol. 9, No. 3, May 1998, pp. 575-578. J.Dayhoff, ”Pattern mapping in pulse transmission neural networks”, Systems Research Center University of Maryland. H.S. Ranganath, G. Kuiitimad,” Pulse Coupled Neural Networks for Image Processing”, Computer Science Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville.

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