Scientific Method and the Metric System

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# Scientific Method and the Metric System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Scientific Method and the Metric System. The Scientific Method Scientific method : a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data. Observing and Collecting Data.

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### Scientific Method and the Metric System

The Scientific Method

Scientific method: a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data

Observing and Collecting Data
• Observing: the use of the senses to obtain information
• Qualitative-descriptive
• Quantitative-numerical
• System: a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
Formulating Hypotheses
• Hypothesis: A testable statement
• Serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments
• Often “if-then” statements
• Logic
Testing Hypotheses
• Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute a hypothesis or theory
• If the data does not support the predictions, then the generalizations on which the predictions were based must be discarded or modified
Theorizing
• When the data from experiments confirm the hypothesis, scientists use models to explain what they observed
• Model: in science is more than a physical object: it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related.
• If a model successfully explains a phenomena, it may become part of theory
• Theory: broad generalizations that explains a body of facts or phenomena
Scientific Method is NOT…
• LINEAR!!!
• It IS….complicated and messy
Versions of the scientific method

http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/images/ScientificMethod.jpg

http://opinionsandexpressions.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/20071210_scientificmethod.png

More versions of the scientific method

Important!

http://www.lewis.edu/steve/science/images/SMflowchart.jpeg

Units of Measurement
• You are constantly measuring things (whether you realize it or not)- what units are you most familiar with?
A few ideas
• Height- feet/inches (5’8”)
• Temperature- F not Celsius
• Baking- 1 cup, 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon
• Drinks- 12 ounces (can of soda)
• Weight- pounds (???lbs)
• Distance- miles
SI Measurement
• SI- a single measurement system adopted in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measurements
• Contains 7 base units and many derived
Mass
• Mass- measure of the quantity of matter
• SI unit-kilogram
• Weight- measure of the gravitational pull on matter
• Mass does not depend on such as attraction
• Which is why your WEIGHT changes if you go to the moon (1/6 to be exact)
Mountain Dew Mass Demo

Who drank a soda yesterday

What was it?

Did you notice the sugar content?

What was the unit of measure in?

Can you visualize how much sugar you are actually consuming in a 12oz of soda?

Length
• SI unit- meter
• United States-miles
• Everyone else-kilometers

How tall are you in meters?!

1 foot = 0.3048 meters

If you are 5’4” so in meters you are 1.6256m

Derived SI Units
• Derived units- combinations of SI base units
Volume
• Volume: the amount of space occupied by an object
• SI unit-m3
• Non-SI unit-Liters
• 1000mL=1L
• 1000cm3=1Liter
• 1L=1000mL=1000cm3
Density
• Always remember:
• I DENSITY!!!!

Density=Mass/Volume

Density
• Density: the ratio of mass to volume or mass/volume
• SI derived units: mass (kg) and volume (cubic meter) kg/m3
• Characteristic physical property of a substance
• Density varies with temperature; generally density decreases with increasing temperature
SI prefixes

http://stpatschem11.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/600px-prefixes.png

Conversion Factors
• Conversion factor: a ratio from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

How many minutes are in a day?

1440 minutes

How did you do it?

Minutes in a day
• _____ minutes per day= 60 minutes/1 hour x 24 hours/ day
Handy equation
• Quantity sought= quantity given x conversion factor
Derive conversion factors
• Derive conversion factors if you know the relationship between the unit you HAVE and the unit you WANT

Example: Express a mass of 5.712 grams in milligrams and in kilograms

Hint:

1gram=1000mg

1kg=1000 grams

• 5.712 grams x 1000mg/1gram=5712milgrams
• 5.712grams x 1 kg/1000grams =.005712kg
Practice makes perfect
• Complete the following conversions:
• 10.5g=____kg
• 1.57km=____m
• 1.2L=_____mL
• 358cm=_____m
• 3548.6mL=_____cm3