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Scientific Method and the Metric System. The Scientific Method Scientific method : a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data. Observing and Collecting Data.

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scientific method and the metric system

Scientific Method and the Metric System

The Scientific Method

Scientific method: a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data

observing and collecting data
Observing and Collecting Data
  • Observing: the use of the senses to obtain information
    • Qualitative-descriptive
    • Quantitative-numerical
  • System: a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
formulating hypotheses
Formulating Hypotheses
  • Hypothesis: A testable statement
    • Serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments
    • Often “if-then” statements
    • Logic
testing hypotheses
Testing Hypotheses
  • Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute a hypothesis or theory
  • If the data does not support the predictions, then the generalizations on which the predictions were based must be discarded or modified
theorizing
Theorizing
  • When the data from experiments confirm the hypothesis, scientists use models to explain what they observed
  • Model: in science is more than a physical object: it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related.
    • If a model successfully explains a phenomena, it may become part of theory
  • Theory: broad generalizations that explains a body of facts or phenomena
scientific method is not
Scientific Method is NOT…
  • LINEAR!!!
  • It IS….complicated and messy
versions of the scientific method
Versions of the scientific method

http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/images/ScientificMethod.jpg

http://opinionsandexpressions.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/20071210_scientificmethod.png

more versions of the scientific method
More versions of the scientific method

Important!

http://www.lewis.edu/steve/science/images/SMflowchart.jpeg

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/overview_scientific_method2.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml&usg=__D_X7ZRgf5v_lAJbIgGY5yeJg-yo=&h=348&w=362&sz=16&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=0tCD1dZBQbnH_M:&tbnh=116&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dscientific%2Bmethod%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26tbs%3Disch:1

units of measurement
Units of Measurement
  • You are constantly measuring things (whether you realize it or not)- what units are you most familiar with?
a few ideas
A few ideas
  • Height- feet/inches (5’8”)
  • Temperature- F not Celsius
  • Baking- 1 cup, 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon
  • Drinks- 12 ounces (can of soda)
  • Weight- pounds (???lbs)
  • Distance- miles
si measurement
SI Measurement
  • SI- a single measurement system adopted in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measurements
    • Contains 7 base units and many derived
slide13
Mass
  • Mass- measure of the quantity of matter
  • SI unit-kilogram
  • Weight- measure of the gravitational pull on matter
    • Mass does not depend on such as attraction
    • Which is why your WEIGHT changes if you go to the moon (1/6 to be exact)
mountain dew mass demo
Mountain Dew Mass Demo

Who drank a soda yesterday

What was it?

Did you notice the sugar content?

What was the unit of measure in?

Can you visualize how much sugar you are actually consuming in a 12oz of soda?

length
Length
  • SI unit- meter
  • United States-miles
  • Everyone else-kilometers

How tall are you in meters?!

1 foot = 0.3048 meters

If you are 5’4” so in meters you are 1.6256m

derived si units
Derived SI Units
  • Derived units- combinations of SI base units
volume
Volume
  • Volume: the amount of space occupied by an object
  • SI unit-m3
  • Non-SI unit-Liters
  • 1000mL=1L
  • 1000cm3=1Liter
  • 1L=1000mL=1000cm3
density
Density
  • Always remember:
    • I DENSITY!!!!

Density=Mass/Volume

density1
Density
  • Density: the ratio of mass to volume or mass/volume
  • SI derived units: mass (kg) and volume (cubic meter) kg/m3
  • Characteristic physical property of a substance
  • Density varies with temperature; generally density decreases with increasing temperature
si prefixes
SI prefixes

http://stpatschem11.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/600px-prefixes.png

conversion factors
Conversion Factors
  • Conversion factor: a ratio from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

How many minutes are in a day?

1440 minutes

How did you do it?

minutes in a day
Minutes in a day
  • _____ minutes per day= 60 minutes/1 hour x 24 hours/ day
  • Answer: 1440 minutes/day
handy equation
Handy equation
  • Quantity sought= quantity given x conversion factor
derive conversion factors
Derive conversion factors
  • Derive conversion factors if you know the relationship between the unit you HAVE and the unit you WANT

Example: Express a mass of 5.712 grams in milligrams and in kilograms

Hint:

1gram=1000mg

1kg=1000 grams

answer
Answer
  • 5.712 grams x 1000mg/1gram=5712milgrams
  • 5.712grams x 1 kg/1000grams =.005712kg
practice makes perfect
Practice makes perfect
  • Complete the following conversions:
  • 10.5g=____kg
  • 1.57km=____m
  • 1.2L=_____mL
  • 358cm=_____m
  • 3548.6mL=_____cm3
answers
answers
  • Complete the following conversions:
  • 10.5g=.0105 kg
  • 1.57km= 1570 m
  • 1.2L=1200mL
  • 3548.6mL= 3548.6 cm3
density problem
Density problem
  • The density of gold is 19.3g/cm3.
  • What is the volume, in cm3, of a sample of gold with mass .715kg?
answer1
Answer
  • 37.05cm3
  • ____cm3=.715kg x 1000g/1kg x 1cm3/19.3g
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