Humoral immunity and clotting
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Humoral Immunity and Clotting. HUMORAL IMMUNITY- KEY TERMS:. ANTIGEN: a substance that can stimulate the body to produce antibodies ANTIBODY: a substance produced by the body to destroy or inactivate a foreign substance (antigen)

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Humoral Immunity and Clotting

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Humoral immunity and clotting

Humoral Immunity and Clotting


Humoral immunity key terms

HUMORAL IMMUNITY-KEY TERMS:

  • ANTIGEN:

    • a substance that can stimulate the body to produce antibodies

  • ANTIBODY:

    • a substance produced by the body to destroy or inactivate a foreign substance (antigen)

  • ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY complex has a lock and key fit.


Agglutination

Agglutination:

  • The clumping of microbes/cells when held together by antibodies


B lymphocyte activation humoral response

B-lymphocyte activation (Humoral Response)

  • B-lymphocyte searches for antigen matching its receptor

  • If found, triggering signal is set off

  • Helper T cells release activating proteins (cytokines) B/cytotoxicT cells

  • B cells divide into plasma cells and B memory cells

    • Plasma cells release antibodies

    • B memory cells: prolonged life span, “remember” specific intruders


Humoral immunity and clotting

Lymphoctye

T-Lymphoctye

B-Lymphoctye

Regulatory

T-Lymphoctye

Memory

B-Lymphoctye

signal

activate

Cytotoxic

T -Lymphoctye

Plasma

B-Lymphoctye

Helper

T-Lymphoctye

activate

antibody

release


Cytotoxic t cell killing a cancer cell

Cytotoxic T cell killing a cancer cell


Immune disorders

Immune Disorders

  • Allergy – Hypersensitivity to relatively harmless environmental antigen

  • Autoimmunity – Inappropriate/excessive response to self-antigens (molecules native to the person = self)

  • Lupus – Inflammatory disease that affects many tissues (joints, blood vessels, kidneys, nervous system, skin)

  • HIV/AIDS – Targets certain T-cells, destroying them (CD4-T cells most often targeted)


Thrombocytes platelets

THROMBOCYTES:Platelets

  • No nucleus

  • Cell “fragments”

  • Irregular, disc shaped

  • Clot blood

  • Help maintain endothelial lining


Clotting mechanism

CLOTTING MECHANISM

  • Injury to blood vessel; clotting factors are released into the plasma

    • Platelets form soft “platelet plug”

    • Prothrombin activator released

  • Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin into thrombin

  • Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen to form fibrin, a fibrous gel

  • Fibrin tangles RBC’s & platelets to form clot


Clotting disorders

Clotting Disorders

  • Thrombosis

    • Clot forms in unbroken blood vessels = thrombus

  • Embolism

    • Clot dislodges (embolus)

  • Hemophilia

    • Inherited disorder

    • Lack of clotting factor, important plasma proteins for clotting

  • Thrombocytopenia

    • Decreased platelet count

    • Bleeding from small blood vessels throughout body


Use the following in your story about a strange bacterium that enters through a cut

Use the following in your story about a “strange” bacterium that enters through a cut.

  • Antigen

  • Antibody

  • B-lymphocyte

  • Clot

  • Clotting Factors

  • Cytokines

  • Cytotoxic-T cells

  • Fibrin

  • Fibrinogen

  • Helper-T cells

  • Memory-B cells

  • Plasma Cells

  • Platelet Plug

  • Platelets

  • Prothrombin

  • Prothrombin Activator

  • Thrombin


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