Chapter 18 section 3
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Chapter 18 section 3. Victory in Europe. Objectives:. Identify where the Allied offensive in Europe began. Explain the impact of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air. Analyze how the Allies successfully invaded Normandy. Victory in Europe.

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Chapter 18 section 3

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Chapter 18 section 3

Victory in Europe


  • Identify where the Allied offensive in Europe began.

  • Explain the impact of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air.

  • Analyze how the Allies successfully invaded Normandy.

Victory in Europe

  • Battle of El Alamein British stopped Axis advance in North Africa.

  • Allies launch “Operation Torch”- plan to remove Axis from North Africa.

  • Attack 8 November 1942

  • British forces to push from the east

  • British- American forces to land at Casablanca, Oren, Algiers and move west.

  • General Dwight D. Eisenhower in command of Allied forces in North Africa.

  • Allies push Axis from North Africa and force their retreat to Europe in May 1943.

Italian Campaign

  • Next step to attack “Fortress Europe”

  • Churchill in meetings with Stalin, Roosevelt believed the best place wasItaly.

  • Called it “soft underbelly”

  • 1st conquer Sicily launch pad to attack Italy.

  • Once Italy was captured Europe could be conquered.

  • July ’43 Landed in Sicily

  • Conquered a month later.

  • September ’43 landed at Salerno on Italian mainland.

  • November ’43 had Naples

  • Offensive slowed by Germans resistance which refuse to give up Italy.

  • 4 June 1944 Rome fell 1st Axis capital to fall.

End of Mussolini

  • Just before Allies invaded King Removed Mussolini as P.M.

  • Ordered his arrest.

  • New P.M. signed armistice w/ Allies September ‘43

  • Germans took Mussolini north, set up base for him.

  • At the end of the Italian campaign, captured by own men and executed.

Sea and Air Assaults

Battle of the Atlantic

  • Sea battle for dominance of Atlantic

  • Axis submarine attacks took huge toll on Allies.

  • With sonar- sound waves that detect objects- Allies turn the tide in ’43.

  • Sea dominance allows Allies to protect cargo ships and sink Axis vessels.

  • By ’44 Allies win battle of Atlantic.

Air Assaults

  • Allies begin strategic bombing campaign aimed at destroying German production and undermining morale.

  • Carpet Bombing- used by both sides.

  • Large # of bombs dropped over a wide area.

  • U.S. conducted daytime raids

  • British night.


  • Allied victory in the Battle of the Atlantic and in the skies over Europe allowed them to invade Europe.

Operation Overlord

  • Allies win control of sky, sea.

  • Opened Europe to invasion.

  • General George C. Marshall led planning.

  • Eisenhower chosen to lead invasion.

  • Created dummy invasion aimed at Calais.

  • Landed at Normandy 6 June 1944.


  • “D-Day”- Invasion of Europe.

  • 150,000 Allied troops landed on five beaches.

  • Utah

  • Omaha U.S.

  • Juno

  • Gold British

  • Sword British and Canadian.

  • General Omar Bradley led U.S. forces ashore.

  • Germans fortified beaches.

  • Tough opposition.

  • Saving Private Ryan

  • Able to establish beach head but could only move 20 miles inland by July.

  • Americans launch Operation Cobra and break out.

  • Germans forced to retreat.

  • 25 August ’44 take Paris.

Battle of the Bulge

  • September ’44 allies pushed Germans back into Germany.

  • December Germans launch counter attack.

  • Push westward into Belgium/ Northern France

  • Created bulge in Allied front lines.

  • 101st Airborne defending Belgian town of Bastogne surrounded.

  • Allies counterattack spearheaded by Patton who stops German advance.

  • Last German offensive of World War II

  • Allies force Germans back into Germany.


  • February ’45 Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin meet to plan post war peace in Yalta.

  • Planned to divide Germany between Allies and occupy after the war and outline plans for a new international peace organization.

Fall of Germany

  • Allied bombers kept bombing German cities destroying factories/ morale.

  • March ’45 allies cross the Rhine and drive toward center of Germany.

  • Soviets pushed from east, controlled most of Eastern Europe.

  • Churchill feared Soviets would keep territories it conquered from Germany, wanted Eisenhower to keep pushing east.

  • Eisenhower didn’t want military strategy to be determined by politics.

  • Stopped at Elbe River in April.

  • Met with Soviet soldiers there.

  • With Allied forces closing in, on 30 April 1945, Hitler committed suicide.

  • 7 May 45 Germany surrenders

  • 8 May Victory in Europe V.E. Day

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