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Chapter 18 section 3. Victory in Europe. Objectives:. Identify where the Allied offensive in Europe began. Explain the impact of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air. Analyze how the Allies successfully invaded Normandy. Victory in Europe.

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chapter 18 section 3

Chapter 18 section 3

Victory in Europe

  • Identify where the Allied offensive in Europe began.
  • Explain the impact of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air.
  • Analyze how the Allies successfully invaded Normandy.
victory in europe
Victory in Europe
  • Battle of El Alamein British stopped Axis advance in North Africa.
  • Allies launch “Operation Torch”- plan to remove Axis from North Africa.
  • Attack 8 November 1942
  • British forces to push from the east
  • British- American forces to land at Casablanca, Oren, Algiers and move west.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower in command of Allied forces in North Africa.
  • Allies push Axis from North Africa and force their retreat to Europe in May 1943.
italian campaign
Italian Campaign
  • Next step to attack “Fortress Europe”
  • Churchill in meetings with Stalin, Roosevelt believed the best place wasItaly.
  • Called it “soft underbelly”
  • 1st conquer Sicily launch pad to attack Italy.
Once Italy was captured Europe could be conquered.
  • July ’43 Landed in Sicily
  • Conquered a month later.

September ’43 landed at Salerno on Italian mainland.

  • November ’43 had Naples
  • Offensive slowed by Germans resistance which refuse to give up Italy.
end of mussolini
End of Mussolini
  • Just before Allies invaded King Removed Mussolini as P.M.
  • Ordered his arrest.
  • New P.M. signed armistice w/ Allies September ‘43
  • Germans took Mussolini north, set up base for him.
battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
  • Sea battle for dominance of Atlantic
  • Axis submarine attacks took huge toll on Allies.
  • With sonar- sound waves that detect objects- Allies turn the tide in ’43.
  • Sea dominance allows Allies to protect cargo ships and sink Axis vessels.
  • By ’44 Allies win battle of Atlantic.
air assaults
Air Assaults
  • Allies begin strategic bombing campaign aimed at destroying German production and undermining morale.
  • Carpet Bombing- used by both sides.
  • Large # of bombs dropped over a wide area.
  • U.S. conducted daytime raids
  • British night.
  • Allied victory in the Battle of the Atlantic and in the skies over Europe allowed them to invade Europe.
operation overlord
Operation Overlord
  • Allies win control of sky, sea.
  • Opened Europe to invasion.
  • General George C. Marshall led planning.
Eisenhower chosen to lead invasion.
  • Created dummy invasion aimed at Calais.
  • Landed at Normandy 6 June 1944.
d day
  • “D-Day”- Invasion of Europe.
  • 150,000 Allied troops landed on five beaches.
  • Omaha U.S.
  • Juno
  • Gold British
  • Sword British and Canadian.
Able to establish beach head but could only move 20 miles inland by July.
  • Americans launch Operation Cobra and break out.
  • Germans forced to retreat.
  • 25 August ’44 take Paris.
battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge
  • September ’44 allies pushed Germans back into Germany.
  • December Germans launch counter attack.
  • Push westward into Belgium/ Northern France
  • Created bulge in Allied front lines.
101st Airborne defending Belgian town of Bastogne surrounded.
  • Allies counterattack spearheaded by Patton who stops German advance.
  • Last German offensive of World War II
  • Allies force Germans back into Germany.
  • February ’45 Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin meet to plan post war peace in Yalta.
  • Planned to divide Germany between Allies and occupy after the war and outline plans for a new international peace organization.
fall of germany
Fall of Germany
  • Allied bombers kept bombing German cities destroying factories/ morale.
  • March ’45 allies cross the Rhine and drive toward center of Germany.
  • Soviets pushed from east, controlled most of Eastern Europe.
  • Churchill feared Soviets would keep territories it conquered from Germany, wanted Eisenhower to keep pushing east.
Eisenhower didn’t want military strategy to be determined by politics.
  • Stopped at Elbe River in April.
  • Met with Soviet soldiers there.
  • With Allied forces closing in, on 30 April 1945, Hitler committed suicide.
  • 7 May 45 Germany surrenders
  • 8 May Victory in Europe V.E. Day