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FINAL EXAM REVIEW. TIMELINE. Supreme Court delivers Plessy vs. Fergeson (1896) NAACP is formed(1909) Supreme Court delivers Brown v. Board(1954) Rosa Parks arrested in Montgomery, AL(1955) Montgomery Bus Boycott(1955-1956) March on Washington demonstration (1963) Civil Rights Act(1964)

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  • Supreme Court delivers Plessy vs. Fergeson (1896)

  • NAACP is formed(1909)

  • Supreme Court delivers Brown v. Board(1954)

  • Rosa Parks arrested in Montgomery, AL(1955)

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott(1955-1956)

  • March on Washington demonstration (1963)

  • Civil Rights Act(1964)

  • AIM standoff at Wounded Knee, SD (1973)

  • Republicans introduce Contract with America(1994

  • Gratz v. Bollinger(2003

What did the case of Plessy v Ferguson establish?

  • “Separate but equal”

  • Upheld segregation

Why did African American and Mexican American Students benefit less that Whites from public education?

  • Even though law said “separate but equal”, the facilities available were not

What did W.E.B du Bois encourage students to seek in school?

  • Their own profession, especially in liberal arts education

How did minstrel shows portray African Americans?

  • Unintelligent, illiterate, unable to follow the law

  • Made fun of them

  • laughable

Why was the NAACP founded?

  • 1909

  • Group dedicated to African Americans fighting discrimination through the court system

What were some of the issues women faced in the 1800s

  • Unable to vote

  • Unfair wages, jobs

  • Unsafe working conditions

  • Social restrictions

What development helped women take their first steps towards public life?

  • Women became organized into groups

  • National women’s rights groups formed

Why did MLK Jr. pick Birmingham, AL, for demonstrations

  • He believed it was the most segregated city in the entire country

What happened after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act 1965

  • African American registered voters increased

  • For the first time, many African Americans were elected to public office at all levels

After the Civil War, what happened to the civil rights movement? After WWII?

  • Declined after Civil War

  • Rose/accelerated after WWII

Where did Pres. Truman order an end to discrimination?

  • Armed forces

  • Previously segregated, many black units not allowed to fight, put to menial tasks

How did Pres. Eisenhower use the National Guard in 1957?

  • AR governor thought integration of schools would cause too much trouble, called National Guard to stop new black students from entering the school

  • Eisenhower took federal control of the National Guard, and turned them around to stop the people against the blacks getting into school, enforcing school integration

In the 1920s and 1930s, the NAACP had success in challenging what?

  • Many of the segregation laws that had existed since the end of slavery

How did the National Urban League help newcomers?

  • Providing them with housing and job opportunities

MLK, influenced by Gandhi, believed in….?

  • Nonviolent protesting

Freedom Summer and Selma March were conducted to draw attention to African Americans’ lack of….

  • Civil Rights, particularly voting rights

How did the SNCC come under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael?

  • The SNCC was taking a new direction in how it pushed for civil rights

  • Moved from “integration” to being a more and more militant organization

What was the Warren Court decision on Kennedy’s assassination?

  • That the assassin acted alone

  • “Grassy Knoll” theory

  • conspiracy

Chief Justice Earl Warren’s court focused on….

  • Constitutional rights of citizens

  • Particularly those of people being accused of crimes

  • Miranda Rights

Kennedy’s domestic success

  • New frontier

  • Economic reforms, fought poverty, propelled America headfirst into the Space Race by expanding the space program

Immigration Act of 1965

  • Abolished national origin quotas set for immigrants (no more set number of people allowed in from each outside country)

Effect of Supreme Court decisions on Apportionments

  • Redrew the areas from which people would vote from

  • People moved from cities to suburban areas, needed to redraw voting discricts

  • Changed the number of seats available in government to each area

What did JFK’s New Frontier focus on?

  • Economy, poverty, and the space program

Women’s Movement of 1960 grew out of frustration with…?

  • Discrimination against women, especially in the types of jobs that were available to them

ERA passed Congress in 1972, but what happened?

  • It was not ratified by enough states to be enacted into law

Why did many women reject the women’s movement?

  • Many women did not want to work equally as men, and preferred more traditional roles for women in society

What is feminism?

  • The belief that women are socially, politically, and economically equal to men

Whose phones did Nixon order wiretapped?

  • Members of his own staff

Nixon and his aides responded to the siege mentality of the White House by…

  • Wiretaps, enemies list

Nixon approved _______, a group formed in response to the Pentagon Papers

  • Plumbers

  • Ex CIA, ex FBI guys

The Watergate Burglars were caught trying to do what?

  • Place wiretaps/phone taps on the phones of the Democratic National Committee office

Why did Nixon fire the Special Prosecutor?

  • Archibald Cox demanded Nixon hand over secret White House recordings

What did Nixon do as evidence mounted against him?

  • He handed over the tapes, with 18 minutes erased, then resigned from office

What was Ford’s most controversial act as Pres.?

  • Pardoning former pres. Nixon

What was the Iran-Contra affair

  • The secret plan of selling military arms to Iran to fund and arm rebels in Nicaragua

What was the goal of Reagan’s policy towards Nicaragua?

  • Overthrow the Marxist (communist) government, led by the Sandinistas

What was the Boland Amendment?

  • Amendment signed that made it illegal for the CIA to aid the Contras fighting the Sandinistas in Nicaragua

How did Americans find out about America’s role in providing aid to Nicaragua?

  • Lone US pilot who was shot down and survived, captured and put on international TV and told of his US sponsored mission, and the covert aid program

Why was it illegal to sell arms to Iran?

  • There was an embargo against Iran at the time

How did Presient Reagan justify selling arms to Iran?

  • Get prisoner’s back from Iran-backed Lebanon

What did the Tower Commission decide?

  • That Reagan was aware of the arms deals to Iran, but did not know of the diversion of the money to the Contras

  • Contain communism

President Reagan’s approval rating when he left office:

  • Highest of any president since FDR, despite the speculation of his involvement in the Iran-Contra affair


  • Scandal involving president Bill Clinton, his wife, their friends, and a real estate venture that went bankrupt

Ken Starr??

  • Was appointed independent counsel to investigate Clinton’s role in the Whitewater affair

Final outcome of the Starr report

  • Bill Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives, but was not convicted by the Senate

  • Obstruction of justice in lying about having an affair with Monica Lewinsky

Why did conservatives criticize the New Deal and Great Society?

  • Because it expanded the size of the Federal government

What was a major factor for Reagan beating Carter?

  • Iran-hostage Crisis

What were Reagan’s main goals?

  • Cut back government regulations on business and industry

What did the Reagan admin. Rapidly increase spending on?

  • The military

  • $1.1 trillion

What did Reagan’s critics charge that his conservative policies led to?

  • An increasingly larger gap between the rich and poor of America

How did the Soviet policies of perestroika and glasnost help bring an end to the Cold War?

  • Opened up satellite nations to the Western world and culture

  • Caused the fall of communist regimes in Eastern Europe

Major reason George Bush responded forcefully to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait?

  • Protect the flow of oil to the West

Conservatives joined the American Liberty league in the 1930s to oppose what?

  • The New Deal, which was expanding the size of the federal government

What was the effect of Goldwater’s campaign for president?

  • New Right

The federal government continued to grow under….

  • Eisenhower, Johnson, Nixon

Under Reagan programs created by LBJ’s Great Society….

  • Were cut back

Reagan’s foreign policy called for…

  • Taking an active role against communism and its spread throughout the world

What happened to the deficit under Reagan?

  • It rose dramatically

  • Military spending

How did Americans celebrate patriotic renewal?

  • 1984 Olympics in LA

  • Centennial of Statue of Liberty

  • 200th anniversary of the Constitution 1987

What was Reagan’s record in the area of Civil Rights?

  • Tried to end some affirmative action programs

Other things to consider…

  • Carter-Torrijos treaty. Panama Canal involvement

  • Camp David Accords

  • Oil embargo on US: Why?

  • Basically, include the last study guide

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