The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control
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The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control. The urinary system. Lt kidney. Rt kidney. ureter. Urinary bladder. urethra. หน้าที่ของไต. รักษาสมดุลของน้ำและเกลือแร่ รักษาสมดุลกรด-ด่าง ขจัดของเสียที่ได้จากการเผาผลาญอาหาร

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The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

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The urinary systemhomeostasis and temperature control


The urinary system


Lt kidney

Rt kidney

ureter

Urinary bladder

urethra


  • -

  • erythropoietin, renin, angiotensin, prostaglandin, vitamin D3


Nephron


Urine formation

1 ml/min

1-2 L/day

GFR= 100-125 ml/min

= 180 L/day


Urine Formation

  • Pressure filtration

  • - glomerular capsule

  • 2. Selective reabsorption

  • -proximal convoluted tubule.

  • 3. Tubular secretion

  • - distal convoluted tubule.


  • Distal tubule

  • Secretion of ions, acids, drugs and toxins

  • Reabsorption of water, Na, Cl, Ca (under hormonal control)

Proximal tubule

- Reabsorption of waterion and organic nutrients

Renal corpuscle

- Production of filtrate

Loop of Henle

- Reabsorption of water, Na, Cl


Composition of urine

  • Organic substances: urea, uric, creatinine

  • Inorganic substances: Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4, Cl. HCO3, PO4


  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • posterior pituitary gland

    • collecting tubule

  • Aldosterone

    • adrenal cortex

    • Na collecting tubule

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • Na collecting tubule

  • Parathyroid hormone

    • PO4, Ca, vitamin D


Homeostasis


  • Homeostasis - condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits.

    • Homoios the same; stasis standing


Basic component of control mechanism

  • Sensor mechanism

    • Sensory nerve cells or endocrine glands

    • Deviation from set point sensor generates afferent signal

  • Integrating/control center

    • Receives afferent signal

    • Analyzes and integrated with other information

    • Sends efferent signal to organs (effectors)


  • Basic component of control mechanism

    • Effectors mechanism

      • Organs (muscles or glands) directly influence physiological variables

    • Feedback system:


    effector

    sensor

    Control center


    Water balance


    Body fluid


    Interstitial fluid

    Intracellular fluid

    Blood plasma

    Hydrostatic pressure

    Osmotic pressure


    Normal water intake

    (1.0-1.5 L/d)

    Water of cellular metabolism

    350-500 ml/d

    ICF

    27 L

    ECF

    15 L

    Variable water excretion

    Fixed water excretion

    Sweat

    0.1 L/d

    Stool

    0.1 L/d

    Pulmonary

    0.3 L/d

    Total urine output

    1.0-1.5 L/d

    Total insensible loss

    ~ 0.5 L/d


    sodium

    • osmolarity

      • Osmole receptor anterior hypothalamus

      • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

      • (volume sensing) :- baroreceptor

      • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

      • Reabsorption of sodium


    ECF

    Water + Na

    blood volume

    thirst

    aldosterone

    ADH

    water reabsorption

    Na excretion

    urine


    ECF

    (Water + Na)

    blood volume

    thirst

    aldosterone

    ADH

    water reabsorption

    Na reabsorption

    urine


    Normal


    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

    osmole

    Na conc.


    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

    osmole

    Na conc.


    • : polyuria, oliguria, anuria


    -

    - :


    - dehydration


    Mild dehydration

    Thirst

    Dry lips

    Slightly dry mouth membranes

    Moderate dehydration

    Very dry mouth membranes

    Sunken eyes

    Poor skin turgor

    Severe dehydration

    Rapid, weak pulse

    Cold hands and feet

    Rapid breathing

    Confusion


    - dehydration


    Temperature control


    radiation

    conduction

    convection

    evaporation

    Heat exchange


    Heat production

    • Metabolic process

    • Muscle contraction

    Heat balance

    heat in

    heat out

    Radiation

    Conduction

    Convection

    evaporation

    • Sweating

    • Cutaneous vasodilatation

    Warm environment


    Body temperature

    - Normal = 37 oC (range 36-38 oC)

    • body temperature


    Expose to cold


    Expose to heat


    Fever


    A persons sweating rate

    • Climatic condition

    • Clothing worn

    • Exercise intensity

    Sweating rate = 1.0-2.5 L/h

    Na in sweat = 10-100 meq/L


    Development of heat exhaustion

    Expose to heat

    Cutaneous vasodilatation

    Excessive sweating

    cardiac output

    blood pressure

    shock


    Development of heat stroke

    Strenuous exercise

    Hot, humid environment

    Inadequate temperature regulation

    Core temperature

    Impaired CNS function

    Organ & tissue damage

    Death


    fitness center 1


    sauna


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