The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control
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The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control. The urinary system. Lt kidney. Rt kidney. ureter. Urinary bladder. urethra. หน้าที่ของไต. รักษาสมดุลของน้ำและเกลือแร่ รักษาสมดุลกรด-ด่าง ขจัดของเสียที่ได้จากการเผาผลาญอาหาร

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The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

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The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

The urinary systemhomeostasis and temperature control


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

The urinary system


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

Lt kidney

Rt kidney

ureter

Urinary bladder

urethra


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

  • -

  • erythropoietin, renin, angiotensin, prostaglandin, vitamin D3


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

Nephron


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

Urine formation

1 ml/min

1-2 L/day

GFR= 100-125 ml/min

= 180 L/day


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

Urine Formation

  • Pressure filtration

  • - glomerular capsule

  • 2. Selective reabsorption

  • -proximal convoluted tubule.

  • 3. Tubular secretion

  • - distal convoluted tubule.


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

  • Distal tubule

  • Secretion of ions, acids, drugs and toxins

  • Reabsorption of water, Na, Cl, Ca (under hormonal control)

Proximal tubule

- Reabsorption of waterion and organic nutrients

Renal corpuscle

- Production of filtrate

Loop of Henle

- Reabsorption of water, Na, Cl


Composition of urine

Composition of urine

  • Organic substances: urea, uric, creatinine

  • Inorganic substances: Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4, Cl. HCO3, PO4


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

    • posterior pituitary gland

    • collecting tubule

  • Aldosterone

    • adrenal cortex

    • Na collecting tubule

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • Na collecting tubule

  • Parathyroid hormone

    • PO4, Ca, vitamin D


Homeostasis

Homeostasis


The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

  • Homeostasis - condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits.

    • Homoios the same; stasis standing


Basic component of control mechanism

Basic component of control mechanism

  • Sensor mechanism

    • Sensory nerve cells or endocrine glands

    • Deviation from set point sensor generates afferent signal

  • Integrating/control center

    • Receives afferent signal

    • Analyzes and integrated with other information

    • Sends efferent signal to organs (effectors)


  • Basic component of control mechanism1

    Basic component of control mechanism

    • Effectors mechanism

      • Organs (muscles or glands) directly influence physiological variables

    • Feedback system:


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    effector

    sensor

    Control center


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Water balance


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Body fluid


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Interstitial fluid

    Intracellular fluid

    Blood plasma

    Hydrostatic pressure

    Osmotic pressure


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Normal water intake

    (1.0-1.5 L/d)

    Water of cellular metabolism

    350-500 ml/d

    ICF

    27 L

    ECF

    15 L

    Variable water excretion

    Fixed water excretion

    Sweat

    0.1 L/d

    Stool

    0.1 L/d

    Pulmonary

    0.3 L/d

    Total urine output

    1.0-1.5 L/d

    Total insensible loss

    ~ 0.5 L/d


    Sodium

    sodium

    • osmolarity

      • Osmole receptor anterior hypothalamus

      • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

      • (volume sensing) :- baroreceptor

      • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

      • Reabsorption of sodium


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    ECF

    Water + Na

    blood volume

    thirst

    aldosterone

    ADH

    water reabsorption

    Na excretion

    urine


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    ECF

    (Water + Na)

    blood volume

    thirst

    aldosterone

    ADH

    water reabsorption

    Na reabsorption

    urine


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Normal


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

    osmole

    Na conc.


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

    osmole

    Na conc.


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    • : polyuria, oliguria, anuria


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    -

    - :


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    - dehydration


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Mild dehydration

    Thirst

    Dry lips

    Slightly dry mouth membranes

    Moderate dehydration

    Very dry mouth membranes

    Sunken eyes

    Poor skin turgor

    Severe dehydration

    Rapid, weak pulse

    Cold hands and feet

    Rapid breathing

    Confusion


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    - dehydration


    Temperature control

    Temperature control


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    radiation

    conduction

    convection

    evaporation

    Heat exchange


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Heat production

    • Metabolic process

    • Muscle contraction

    Heat balance

    heat in

    heat out

    Radiation

    Conduction

    Convection

    evaporation

    • Sweating

    • Cutaneous vasodilatation

    Warm environment


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Body temperature

    - Normal = 37 oC (range 36-38 oC)

    • body temperature


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Expose to cold


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Expose to heat


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Fever


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    A persons sweating rate

    • Climatic condition

    • Clothing worn

    • Exercise intensity

    Sweating rate = 1.0-2.5 L/h

    Na in sweat = 10-100 meq/L


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Development of heat exhaustion

    Expose to heat

    Cutaneous vasodilatation

    Excessive sweating

    cardiac output

    blood pressure

    shock


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    Development of heat stroke

    Strenuous exercise

    Hot, humid environment

    Inadequate temperature regulation

    Core temperature

    Impaired CNS function

    Organ & tissue damage

    Death


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    fitness center 1


    The urinary system homeostasis and temperature control

    sauna


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