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Behavioral Health. KNR 365. Definitions. Mental Health: A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life The Free Dictionary

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Definitions
Definitions

  • Mental Health: A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life

    • The Free Dictionary

  • Behavioral Health: Diagnosis and treatment of mental health and substance abuse disorders

    • www.unityhealth.com/Glossary/index.htm


  • Where
    Where?

    • Acute inpatient hospital units in general medical hospitals

      • Separate youth & adults

      • Locked & unlocked

    • Partial hospitalization

    • Outpatient

    • Day treatment

    • More….



    Incidence
    Incidence

    • 57 million in US

    • Leading cause of disability 15-44 years

      • Almost ½ have 2 or more disorders

  • Behavior is culturally relative

    • Within norm of the culture

  • Often stigmatized

    • Has a detrimental effect on seeking treatment, acceptance in community, detrimental effect on recovery

      • Carter & Van Andel, 2011


  • DSM

    • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    • American Psychiatric Association

    • Used in US & much of the world

      • Establish consistence criteria for mental disorders

      • Guide diagnosis of patients

      • Communicate with patients & other clinicians

      • Reimbursement from insurance companies


    Dsm iv tr
    DSM-IV-TR

    • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, 2000

    • Multiaxial classification system

    • Rated on 5 axis


    Dsm iv tr1
    DSM-IV-TR

    • Axis: I: Clinical disorders/Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention

    • Axis II: Personality disorders/Mental retardation

    • Axis III: General medical conditions

    • Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems

    • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning


    Axis v global assessment of functioning gaf scale
    Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF Scale)

    • Current level of adaptive functioning in social relationships, occupational functioning, and use of leisure time

  • Looks at overall functioning

  • Continuum from psychiatric illness to health

  • Looks at highest functioning in last year

  • Scale 1 (sickest) to 100 (healthiest)

    • 81-90/91-100 = positive mental health

    • 31-70 most outpatients

    • 1-40 most inpatients


  • Dsm 5 5 2013 www psych org practice dsm dsm5
    DSM 5 (5/2013)www.psych.org/practice/dsm/dsm5

    • Removed multiaxial classification system

      • Axis I, II, III in Section 2

        • Diagnostic criteria & codes

      • Replaced Axis IV with psychosocial & contextual factors

        • ICD-9-CM V codes

        • ICD-10-CM Z codes (10/24)

      • Dropped Axis V

        • Simple score from GAF not enough information

        • Variety of assessments, WHO


    Dsm 5
    DSM 5

    • Neurodevelopmental Disorders

      • Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    • Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders

    • Bipolar & Related Disorders

    • Depressive Disorders

    • Anxiety Disorders

      • Social Anxiety Disorder


    Dsm 51
    DSM 5

    • Obsessive-Compulsive & Related Disorders

      • Hoarding Disorder, Trichotillomania, Excoriation

    • Trauma & Stress-Related Disorders

    • Dissociative Disorder

    • Somatic Symptoms & Related Disorders

    • Feeding & Eating Disorders

    • Elimination Disorders

    • Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders

    • Parasomnies


    Dsm 52
    DSM 5

    • Sexual Dysfunction

    • Gender Dysphoria

    • Disruptive, Impulse-Control, & Conduct Disorders

    • Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

      • Cannabis-Related Disorders

    • Neurocognitive Disorders

    • Personality Disorders

    • Paraphilic Disorders


    Dsm 53
    DSM 5

    • Other Mental Disorders

    • Medication-Induced Movement Disorders & Other Adverse Effects of Medication

    • WHO International Classification of Diseases

      • ICD codes


    Covered in text
    Covered in Text

    • Generalized anxiety disorder

    • Major depressive disorder

    • Schizophrenia

    • Substance-related disorders

    • Suicide & suicidal ideation

    • Eating disorders (assignment)


    Treatment for major depression
    Treatment for major depression

    Shock: Electroconvulsive Therapy


    Schizophrenic spectrum disorders
    Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders

    TED Talk

    Auditory Halucination



    Cognitive behavior therapy1
    Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    • Control and change negative thoughts to change mood and behavior

    • Change maladaptive thought

    • Cognitive restructuring

    • Relaxation training



    Acceptance commitment therapy1
    Acceptance & Commitment Therapy

    • ACT differs from CBT in that instead of challenging distressing thoughts by looking for evidence and coming up with a more rational response (CBT), in ACT, the thought is accepted as a thought, e.g. “I’m having the thought that this boat is going to sink”, and then defused using a variety of techniques


    Acceptance
    Acceptance

    • ACT is based on the idea that, generally, trying to rid ourselves of pain and distress only increases it, and turns it into something traumatic. The alternative is to accept it - but that doesn't mean being defeated or tolerating suffering. We learn to make room for painful feelings, thoughts, and sensations - allowing them to be there, coming and going without us struggling against them


    Mindfulness values
    Mindfulness & Values

    • Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally

    • Values clarification



    Evidence based practice
    Evidence-based Practice

    • Active Leisure in the Emotional Experience of People with Schizophrenia

      • McCormick, Snethen, Smith, Lysaker, 2012, TRJ

        • Majority of activity was sedentary

        • Majority of leisure activity was sedentary

        • Physically active leisure was significantly associated with lower negative emotion

        • No association with activity and positive emotion

        • “There is reason to advocate for the inclusion of leisure-time physical activity in psychiatric rehabilitation for people with SSD.” (p. 179)


    Evidence based practice1
    Evidence-based Practice

    • SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs & Practiceshttp://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/

    • National Guideline Clearinghousehttp://www.guideline.gov/


    Recommended resource
    Recommended Resource

    • K. Grote & S. Warner, 2013, Idyll Arbor, $45.00

    • K. Grote, M. Hasl, R. Krider, & D. Mortensen, 1995, Amazon


    Recommend resource
    Recommend Resource

    • Reproducible Care Plans

    • Efficacy-based protocols for behavioral health settings

    • Guideline on how to develop you own protocols and treatment plans

    • Diagnostic protocols represent most common diagnostic groups & outline treatment & services routinely provided

    • Program protocols include structure, process, & outcome criteria & treatment to offer

    • Treatment plans cover many of the difficult behaviors of clients

    • Bibliographies list outcome-oriented research


    Recommended resource1
    Recommended Resource

    • Affective Domain

      • Flat Affect

      • Lability

      • Low Self-Esteem

    • Cognitive Domain

      • Ruminating Thought

      • Delusions or Hallucinations

      • Poor Concentration

      • Loose Associations

    • Physical Domain

      • Lethargy

      • Unsteady Gait

    • Leisure Domain

      • Lack of Initiative

      • Few Leisure Interests

      • Multiple Stresses

      • Few Social Supports

      • Knowledge Deficit

      • Require Structure


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