Routing fundamentals and subnets l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

Routing Fundamentals and Subnets PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 96 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Routing Fundamentals and Subnets. Objectives. Routed protocol IP routing protocols The mechanics of subnetting. Routed Protocol. Routable and Routed Protocols . A routed protocol allows the router to forward data between nodes on different networks.

Download Presentation

Routing Fundamentals and Subnets

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Routing fundamentals and subnets l.jpg

Routing Fundamentals and Subnets


Objectives l.jpg

Objectives

  • Routed protocol

  • IP routing protocols

  • The mechanics of subnetting


Routed protocol l.jpg

Routed Protocol


Routable and routed protocols l.jpg

Routable and Routed Protocols

  • A routed protocol allows the router to forward data between nodes on different networks.

  • In order for a protocol to be routable, it must provide the ability to assign a network number and a host number to each individual device.

  • These protocols also require a network mask in order to differentiate the two numbers.

  • The reason that a network mask is used is to allow groups of sequential IP addresses to be treated as a single unit.


Ip as a routed protocol l.jpg

IP as a Routed Protocol

  • IP is a connectionless, unreliable, best-effort delivery protocol.

  • As information flows down the layers of the OSI model; the data is processed at each layer.

  • IP accepts whatever data is passed down to it from the upper layers.


Packet propagation and switching within a router l.jpg

Packet Propagation and Switching Within a Router


Packet propagation and switching within a router7 l.jpg

Packet Propagation and Switching Within a Router

  • As a frame is received at a router interface.

  • The MAC address is checked to see if the frame is directly addressed to the router interface, or a broadcast.

  • The frame header and trailer are removed and the packet is passed up to Layer 3.

  • The destination IP address is compared to the routing table to find a match.

  • The packet is switched to the outgoing interface and given the proper frame header.

  • The frame is then transmitted.


Internet protocol ip connectionless l.jpg

Internet Protocol (IP): Connectionless

  • The Internet is a gigantic, connectionless network in which all packet deliveries are handled by IP.

  • TCP adds Layer 4, connection-oriented reliability services to IP.


Telephone calls connection oriented l.jpg

Telephone Calls: Connection-oriented

A connection is established between the sender and the recipient before any data is transferred.


Anatomy of an ip packet l.jpg

Anatomy of an IP Packet

  • While the IP source and destination addresses are important, the other header fields have made IP very flexible.

  • The header fields are the information that is provided to the upper layer protocols defining the data in the packet.


Ip routing protocols l.jpg

IP Routing Protocols


Routing overview l.jpg

Routing Overview

  • A router is a network layer device that uses one or more routing metrics to determine the optimal path.

  • Routing metrics are values used in determining the advantage of one route over another.

  • Routing protocols use various combinations of metrics for determining the best path for data.


Routing versus switching l.jpg

Routing Versus Switching

  • This distinction is routing and switching use different information in the process of moving data from source to destination.


Routing versus switching14 l.jpg

Routing Versus Switching


Routed versus routing l.jpg

Routed Versus Routing

  • A routed protocol:

    • Includes any network protocol suite that provides enough information in its network layer address to allow a router to forward it to the next device and ultimately to its destination.

    • Defines the format and use of the fields within a packet.

  • A routing protocol:

    • Provides processes for sharing route information.

    • Allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain the routing tables.


Path determination l.jpg

Path Determination

  • Path determination enables a router to compare the destination address to the available routes in its routing table, and to select the best path.


Routing tables l.jpg

Routing Tables

  • Routers keep track of the following:

    • Protocol type

    • Destination/next-hop associations

    • Routing metric

    • Outbound interfaces


Routing algorithms and metrics l.jpg

Routing Algorithms and Metrics

  • Routing protocols have one or more of the following design goals:

    • Optimization

    • Simplicity and low overhead

    • Robustness and stability

    • Flexibility

    • Rapid convergence


Igp and egp l.jpg

IGP and EGP

  • IGPs route data within an autonomous system.

    • RIP, RIPv2, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS

  • EGPs route data between autonomous systems

    • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


Link state and distance vector l.jpg

LinkState and Distance Vector

  • Examples of distance-vector protocols:

    • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

    • Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)

  • Examples of link-state protocols:

    • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

    • Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)


Routing protocols l.jpg

Routing Protocols

  • RIP

  • RIP v2

  • IGRP

  • EIGRP

  • OSPF

  • IS-IS

  • BGP


Mechanics of subnetting l.jpg

Mechanics of Subnetting


Classes of network ip addresses l.jpg

Classes of Network IP Addresses


Introduction to subnetting l.jpg

Introduction to Subnetting

  • Host bits must are reassigned (or “borrowed”) as network bits.

  • The starting point is always the leftmost host bit.

3 bits borrowed allows 23-2 or 6 subnets

5 bits borrowed allows 25-2 or 30 subnets

12 bits borrowed allows 212-2 or 4094 subnets


Reasons for subnetting l.jpg

Reasons for Subnetting

  • Provides addressing flexibility for the network administrator.

    • Each LAN must have its own network or subnetwork address.

  • Provides broadcast containment and low-level security on the LAN.

  • Provides some security since access to other subnets is only available through the services of a router.


Establishing the subnet mask address l.jpg

Establishing the Subnet Mask Address

  • Determines which part of an IP address is the network field and which part is the host field.

  • Follow these steps to determine the subnet mask:

    • 1. Express the subnetwork IP address in binary form.

    • 2. Replace the network and subnet portion of the address with all 1s.

    • 3. Replace the host portion of the address with all 0s.

    • 4. Convert the binary expression back to dotted-decimal notation.


Establishing the subnet mask address27 l.jpg

Establishing the Subnet Mask Address

  • To determine the number of bits to be used, the network designer needs to calculate how many hosts the largest subnetwork requires and the number of subnetworks needed.

  • The “slash format” is a shorter way of representing the subnet mask:

    • /25 represents the 25 one bits in the subnet mask 255.255.255.128


Establishing the subnet mask address28 l.jpg

Establishing the Subnet Mask Address


Subnetting class a and b networks l.jpg

Subnetting Class A and B Networks

  • The available bits for assignment to the subnet field in a Class A address is 22 bits while a Class B address has 14 bits.


Calculating the subnetwork with anding l.jpg

Calculating the Subnetwork With ANDing

  • ANDing is a binary process by which the router calculates the subnetwork ID for an incoming packet.

    • 1 AND 1 = 1; 1 AND 0 = 0; 0 AND 0 = 0

  • The router then uses that information to forward the packet across the correct interface.


  • Login