Module 12 homework assignment
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Module 12 Homework Assignment. Kate Johnson. N umber 1: Accounting for Research and Development and Economic Profit Measures: the Importance of Forecasting until Steady-State is Reached and an Illustration of Hidden Reserves. Background.

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Module 12 Homework Assignment

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Module 12 homework assignment

Module 12 Homework Assignment

Kate Johnson


Module 12 homework assignment

Number 1: Accounting for Research and Development and Economic Profit Measures: the Importance of Forecasting until Steady-State is Reached and an Illustration of Hidden Reserves


Background

Background

  • Many consultants recognize that expensing R&D investments gives a poor indication of the performance of a firm or its managers because investing in R&D results in lower income

    • Thus, they adjust GAAP accounting by capitalizing R&D expenditures and amortizing the capitalized amount over the estimated life of the revenues that flow from the expenditures


Series of r d expenditures

Series of R&D Expenditures


Part a gaap accounting expensed

Part A: GAAP Accounting: Expensed


Part b capitalization

Part B: Capitalization

  • Note: After 5 years, the capitalized assets become fully amortized


Part c why are rnea and rei different

Part C: Why ARE RNEA and REI different?


Part d forecasting

Part D: Forecasting


Part d why do these forecasts differ

PART D: WHY DO THESE FORECASTS DIFFER?


Part e do the valuations differ

Part E: Do the valuations differ?

  • They shouldn’t, but mine did


Part f forecasting only to 2016

Part F- Forecasting only to 2016


Part g cutting r d expenditures

Part G- Cutting R&D Expenditures


Question 2 depreciation methods profitability and valuation earnings management

Question 2: Depreciation Methods, Profitability, and Valuation: Earnings Management


Background1

Background

  • Start up firm embarks on an investment program in 2013 to manufacture and market a new switching device to be used in communications

  • Program requires an initial investment of $600 million in plant and equipment, increasing by $100 million each year for four years up to 2017, and then continuing at $1,000 million thereafter


Background cont

Background, cont.

  • The founders of the firm are keen to look profitable when they expect to take the firm public in an IPO in early 2018

  • After awarding him stock options, they ask the newly hired CFO to prepare forecast statements of earnings and return on investment

  • The marketing manager supplies the CFO with the following sales forecasts (in millions of dollars), and he and the production manager estimate that operational expenses before the depreciation will be 70% of sales


Part a forecasts of epat and nea

Part A: Forecasts of EPAT and NEA

  • Ignoring tax effects


Part b which set of forecasts show the firm to be more profitable in 2017 prior to the ipo

PART B: WHICH SET OF FORECASTS SHOW THE FIRM TO BE MORE PROFITABLE IN 2017 (PRIOR TO THE IPO)?


Part c cfo wants to see

Part c: cfo wants to see


Part d reply

Part d: reply


Part e justifying depreciation methods

Part e: JUSTIFYING DEPRECIATION METHODS


Ethical issues

ETHICAL ISSUES

  • Accounting: We want to accurately display the value at any point in time

    • Depreciation methods make a firm look better or worse than actuality at different points

      • Is this ethical? Doesn’t this defeat the purpose of accounting?

      • Misleading investors?


Questions

Questions?


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