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[A SSISTIVE ] T ECHNOLOGY A DOPTION AND A BANDONMENT. Katherine Deibel Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington, Seattle. AT only helps when it is used 8-75% of AT abandoned after purchase (avg. rate is 35%) Waste of time, funds, and resources for all involved

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a ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

[ASSISTIVE]TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND ABANDONMENT

Katherine Deibel

Computer Science and Engineering

University of Washington, Seattle

slide2
October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

AT only helps when it is used

8-75% of AT abandoned after purchase (avg. rate is 35%)

Waste of time, funds, and resources for all involved

Learned helplessness and pessimism

slide3

OUTLINE

  • Technology Adoption Overview
  • Case Study from Peru
  • Assistive Technology Adoption

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

slide4

DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

Cumulative adoptions

Number of adoptions

  • Everett Rogers, Sociologist
  • General model of how new ideas and technology spread
  • Applied to multiple fields
  • Has adapted to changes in communication technologies

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

Cumulative adoptions

  • Communication drives diffusion
  • S-curves
  • Early adopters
  • Change agents

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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Awareness of innovation

  • ADOPTION PROCESS

Decision

Adopt

Interest, motivation, and learning

Reject

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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ADOPTION PROCESS

Full Adoption /

Integration

Confirmation and finalization

Adaptation / Reinvention

Implementation, integration, and evaluation

Abandonment / Discontinuance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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CASE STUDY: LOS MOLINOS

  • Promote boiling of water in lowland Peruvian village
  • Only 11 out of 200 housewives adopted boiling
  • Classic case of diffusion failure

Wellin, 1955

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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CASE STUDY: LOS MOLINOS

  • Ignored local tradition / culture
  • Overly focused on early adopters
  • Failure to identify and influence change agents
  • Innovation-oriented instead of client-oriented

Wellin, 1955

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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AT ADOPTION

  • Survey studies of adoption and abandonment
  • Longitudinal studies of AT usage
  • Models of AT adoption
  • AT design recommendations
  • Common findings throughout

Additional Studies:

Phillips and Zhao (1993); Elkind et al. (1996); Wehmeyer (1995, 1998); Martin and McCormack (1999); Riemer-Reiss and Wacker (2000); Koester (2003); Dawe (2006); Shinohara and Tenenberg (2007); Scherer (2005)

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Involvement in selection process
  • Unawareness of what is available
  • Decision of doctors, experts, or insurance company
  • Decision of caretakers

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Cost and Effort
  • Initial purchase
  • Physical and cognitive effort of usage
  • Maintenance / replacement costs
  • Utility : Cost balance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Training
  • Serious time and effort
  • Presence of professional support
  • Need for evidence of gains and improvement

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Integration
  • Important tasks and activities
  • Multiple locales and contexts
  • Relative advantage

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Aesthetics and Cosmesis
  • Looks “institutional” or “handicapped”
  • Colors
  • Personal style

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Stigma and Hiding
  • Social perceptions of disability
  • Past experiences of ridicule, shame, or trauma
  • Denial or avoidance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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STIGMA CASE STUDY

  • Stephen Kuusisto
  • Blind due to premature birth
  • Actively disavowed his blindness
  • Mobility training in his early 30s
  • Guide dog in his mid 30s

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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CONCLUDING THOUGHTS

  • Adoption is critical for long-term change
  • Keep adoption in mind
  • Growing body of research to consult
  • More: technology acceptance, diffusion methodologies, etc.

Contact Information:

Kate Deibel <[email protected]>

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

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