A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment
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[A SSISTIVE ] T ECHNOLOGY A DOPTION AND A BANDONMENT. Katherine Deibel Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington, Seattle. AT only helps when it is used 8-75% of AT abandoned after purchase (avg. rate is 35%) Waste of time, funds, and resources for all involved

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[A SSISTIVE ] T ECHNOLOGY A DOPTION AND A BANDONMENT

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A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

[ASSISTIVE]TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND ABANDONMENT

Katherine Deibel

Computer Science and Engineering

University of Washington, Seattle


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World

AT only helps when it is used

8-75% of AT abandoned after purchase (avg. rate is 35%)

Waste of time, funds, and resources for all involved

Learned helplessness and pessimism


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • OUTLINE

  • Technology Adoption Overview

  • Case Study from Peru

  • Assistive Technology Adoption

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

Cumulative adoptions

Number of adoptions

  • Everett Rogers, Sociologist

  • General model of how new ideas and technology spread

  • Applied to multiple fields

  • Has adapted to changes in communication technologies

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

Cumulative adoptions

  • Communication drives diffusion

  • S-curves

  • Early adopters

  • Change agents

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

Awareness of innovation

  • ADOPTION PROCESS

Decision

Adopt

Interest, motivation, and learning

Reject

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • ADOPTION PROCESS

Full Adoption /

Integration

Confirmation and finalization

Adaptation / Reinvention

Implementation, integration, and evaluation

Abandonment / Discontinuance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • CASE STUDY: LOS MOLINOS

  • Promote boiling of water in lowland Peruvian village

  • Only 11 out of 200 housewives adopted boiling

  • Classic case of diffusion failure

Wellin, 1955

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • CASE STUDY: LOS MOLINOS

  • Ignored local tradition / culture

  • Overly focused on early adopters

  • Failure to identify and influence change agents

  • Innovation-oriented instead of client-oriented

Wellin, 1955

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • AT ADOPTION

  • Survey studies of adoption and abandonment

  • Longitudinal studies of AT usage

  • Models of AT adoption

  • AT design recommendations

  • Common findings throughout

Additional Studies:

Phillips and Zhao (1993); Elkind et al. (1996); Wehmeyer (1995, 1998); Martin and McCormack (1999); Riemer-Reiss and Wacker (2000); Koester (2003); Dawe (2006); Shinohara and Tenenberg (2007); Scherer (2005)

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Involvement in selection process

  • Unawareness of what is available

  • Decision of doctors, experts, or insurance company

  • Decision of caretakers

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Cost and Effort

  • Initial purchase

  • Physical and cognitive effort of usage

  • Maintenance / replacement costs

  • Utility : Cost balance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Training

  • Serious time and effort

  • Presence of professional support

  • Need for evidence of gains and improvement

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Integration

  • Important tasks and activities

  • Multiple locales and contexts

  • Relative advantage

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Aesthetics and Cosmesis

  • Looks “institutional” or “handicapped”

  • Colors

  • Personal style

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • FACTORS IN ATADOPTION

  • Stigma and Hiding

  • Social perceptions of disability

  • Past experiences of ridicule, shame, or trauma

  • Denial or avoidance

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • STIGMA CASE STUDY

  • Stephen Kuusisto

  • Blind due to premature birth

  • Actively disavowed his blindness

  • Mobility training in his early 30s

  • Guide dog in his mid 30s

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


A ssistive t echnology a doption and a bandonment

  • CONCLUDING THOUGHTS

  • Adoption is critical for long-term change

  • Keep adoption in mind

  • Growing body of research to consult

  • More: technology acceptance, diffusion methodologies, etc.

Contact Information:

Kate Deibel <[email protected]>

October 2, 2009 -- Technology and Disability in the Developing World


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