Endocrine system ctli training 12 13 july 2011 h c adonis
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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM CTLI Training : 12,13 July 2011 H.C.Adonis. HOMEOSTASIS. LIVER. SKIN. ureum. glucose. Excess water,salts,heat. Amino acids. Insulin & glucagon. oxygen. carbondioxide. PANCREAS. LUNGS. Excess water, salts, ions. ureum. KIDNEYS. HOMEOSTASIS: Main ideas.

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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM CTLI Training : 12,13 July 2011 H.C.Adonis

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Endocrine system ctli training 12 13 july 2011 h c adonis

ENDOCRINE SYSTEMCTLI Training: 12,13 July 2011H.C.Adonis


Homeostasis

HOMEOSTASIS

LIVER

SKIN

ureum

glucose

Excess water,salts,heat

Amino acids

Insulin & glucagon

oxygen

carbondioxide

PANCREAS

LUNGS

Excess water, salts, ions

ureum

KIDNEYS


Homeostasis main ideas

HOMEOSTASIS: Main ideas

  • Maintenance of constant internal environment in the body/keeping conditions in tissue fluid constant

  • WHY?

  • Cells dependant on tissue fluid to function optimally

  • HOW?

  • Various systems that help in maintaining tissue fluid/internal environment constant i.e. nervous system, excretory system, respiratory system, ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.

  • Various systems need to be coordinated in order for body to function as a unit.

  • HOW ARE THESE SYSTEMS COORDINATED?


Endocrine system ctli training 12 13 july 2011 h c adonis

CHEMICAL COORDINATION: Endocrine System

Communication through the use of hormones: results in slower responses

NERVOUS COORDINATION:

Nervous system

Communication takes place via neurons:

results in quick responses


How does chemical coordination take place

HOW DOES CHEMICAL COORDINATION TAKE PLACE?

HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL CENTRE:

THE BRAIN

(hypothalamus)

Nerve impulses

Nerve impulses/Hormones in bloodstream

RECEPTORS:

detect stimuli/change

EFFECTORS (glands): react on stimuli

stimuli

responses

Feedback


Chemical vs nervous coordination

CHEMICAL vs NERVOUS COORDINATION

CHEMICAL COORDINATION

Co-ordinates different systems in the body to work together

Involves hormones transported in the bloodstream in small quantities

Has general and local effects on the body

Is slower acting

Has long-lasting effects

NERVOUS COORDINATION

Co-ordinates different parts of the body to work together

Involves isensations that are transported via neurons in the form of impulses

Has specific targets/effectors

Is very fast acting

Has more short-term effects


Human endocrine system

HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


Endocrine system

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • Endocrine system co-ordinates the body’s organs to help maintain homeostasis

  • Based on the production of chemical messengers called HORMONES.

  • Hormones control body processes that require several organs of the body to interact for a combined effect.

  • Are chemical "messengers“, secreted by glands.

  • Moves very slowly.

  • Most hormones are proteins and some are steroids.

  • Hormones have specific target organs

  • Regulatory effect – stimulate OR inhibit

  • Do not function in isolation – integrated with other hormones

    Functions controlled by hormones include:

  • activities of entire organs

  • growth and development

  • reproduction

  • sexual characteristics

  • usage and storage of energy

  • regulate water content (osmoregulation)

  • ionic (salt) regulation

  • regulation of blood glucose level


Endocrine glands position function

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: position + function

  • IMPORTANT!


Endocrine glands location

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location

Hypophysis / pituitary gland

Thyroid gland

Pancreas

Adrenal glands

Ovaries

Testes


Endocrine glands location function

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location & function

  • Located at base of brain, attached to

  • hypothalamus

  • Nerve fibresfrom hypothalamus runs into posterior lobe

  • Known as “master gland”

  • Consist of anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

  • Anterior lobe releases:

  • TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

  • Growth hormone (STH)

  • FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)

  • LH (Luteinising hormone)

  • Prolactin

  • Posterior lobe releases:

  • ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)

  • Oxytocin

Pituitary gland/hypophysis


Hypophysis pituitary gland

HYPOPHYSIS / PITUITARY GLAND


Hypophysis hormones anterior lobe

HYPOPHYSIS HORMONES: Anterior lobe


Hypophysis hormones posterior lobe

HYPOPHYSIS HORMONES: Posterior lobe


Endocrine glands location function1

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location & function

Thyroid: consist of two lobes on either side of trachea, just below larynx

Produces and secretes hormone thyroxin

The element iodine, essential for production of thyroxin

Shortage could result in enlarged thyroid / goitre


Thyroid gland

THYROID GLAND


Functions of thyroxine

Functions of thyroxine

  • Increases basal metabolic rate (amount of energy the body needs to function when body is at rest)

  • Increases breathing rate and heart rate

  • Development and functioning of nervous system

  • Normal growth and development of important organs


Thyroid disorders

Thyroid Disorders


Thyroid disorders1

HYPERTHYROIDISM

HYPOTHYROIDISM

THYROID DISORDERS


Homeostatic control

HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL

More TSH

Less thyroxin

THYROID

HYPOPHYSIS

More thyroxin

less TSH

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM


Growth disorders

HYPOSECRETION

HYPERSECRETION

  • Gigantism & Acromegaly

  • Dwarfism

GROWTH DISORDERS


Endocrine glands location function2

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location & function

  • Two types of cells:

  • Pancreatic cells

  • Islets of Langerhans(small groups of cells)

  • Pancreatic cells have exocrine function and secrete pancreatic juice into pancreatic duct which leads to duodenum

  • Islets of Langerhanshave endocrine function and secretes 2 hormones directly into bloodstream i.e. glucagon and insulin

  • Alpha cells secrete glucagon and betacells produce insulin

  • Insulin and glucagon responsible for homeostatic control of blood glucose levels through negative feedback system

Pancreas


Pancreas

PANCREAS


Pancreas1

PANCREAS


Insulin glucagon homeostatic control

INSULIN & GLUCAGON: Homeostatic control


Low blood glucose

LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE

1.

Low blood glucose(stimulus)

2.

3.

glucagon

Blood glucose levels return to normal , feedback to hypothalamus

4.


High blood glucose

HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE

1.

High blood glucose(stimulus)

2.

3.

insulin

Blood glucose returns to normal, feedback to hypothalamus

4.


Homeostatic control blood glucose

HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL: BLOOD GLUCOSE


Diabetes mellitus type 1

DIABETESmellitus: Type 1

  • Dysfunction of beta cells, little or no insulin is produced - can cause elevation of glucose level in blood.

  • The excess glucose is now removed from the body through urine.

  • Excess glucose is also removed through

    sweating.

    SYMPTOMS:

    Frequent urination

    Increased hunger

    Inexplicable weight loss

    Repeated infections

    Impaired vision

    Exhaustion and dizziness

    Wounds that heal slowly


Treatment and management

Treatment and management

  • Daily insulin injection

  • A specially adapted diet

  • Regular testing of blood sugar levels


Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

  • Characterised by insulin resistance

  • Life style disease

    CAUSES:

    Overweight and obesity

    Inactivity

    Age

    TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Maintain normal body mass through balanced diet

    Regular exercise

    Oral medication or insulin


Endocrine glands location function3

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location & function

Adrenal glands

Located at top of each kidney ; consist of outer cortex and inner medulla

Adrenal cortex produces hormone aldosterone.

Adrenal medulla produces adrenalin.


Adrenal glands

ADRENAL GLANDS


Effects of adrenalin aldosterone

Effects of Adrenalin & Aldosterone:

ADRENALIN:

  • Known as “fight or flight” hormone

  • Increases heart rate - more blood with oxygen and glucose to muscles

  • Increases blood pressure due to vasoconstriction of vessels in skin- more blood to muscles ,heart and brain

  • Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose – increase glucose levels in blood which releases energy

  • Increase rate and depth of respiration – more oxygen absorbed in blood

  • Increase muscle tone – muscles can react faster

  • Pupils dilate – allow more light into eye for improved vision

  • Increase sweat production – cool body during activity

    ALDOSTERONE:

    Steroid hormone that regulates ionic balance of tissue fluid


Endocrine glands location function4

ENDOCRINE GLANDS: location & function

Gonades: testes and ovaries

Testes located outside body in scrotum

Interstitial cells (Leydig cells) produces hormone testosterone

Ovaries located in abdominal cavity, on either side of uterus

Graafian follicles produce hormone oestrogen

Corpus luteum produces hormone progesterone


Gonads testes ovaries

GONADS: Testes & ovaries

TESTOSTERONE

  • Secondary male sex characteristics

  • Role in development of male sex organ during puberty

  • Neccesary for maturation and quality of sperm cells

    OESTROGEN

  • Secondary female sex characteristics

  • Role in development of female sex organs during puberty

  • Responsible for thickening of endometrium and preparation for implantation

    PROGESTERONE

  • Responsible for further thickening of endometrium and maintenance therof during pregnancy

  • Suppresses release of FSH and LH


Endocrine system ctli training 12 13 july 2011 h c adonis

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