1 4 hardware review
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
1.4 Hardware Review

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 15

1.4 Hardware Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 70 Views
  • Uploaded on

1.4 Hardware Review. CPU. Fetch-decode-execute cycle Fetch Bump PC Decode Determine operand addr (if necessary) Fetch operand from memory (if necessary) Execute Go to step 1 MIPS IA is different from Intel IA Registers PC SP PSW (EFLAGS) What mode are we in?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' 1.4 Hardware Review' - hilda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2
CPU
  • Fetch-decode-execute cycle
      • Fetch
      • Bump PC
      • Decode
      • Determine operand addr (if necessary)
      • Fetch operand from memory (if necessary)
      • Execute
      • Go to step 1
  • MIPS IA is different from Intel IA
  • Registers
  • PC
  • SP
  • PSW (EFLAGS)
    • What mode are we in?
    • Result of last operation (N,Z,V,C)
slide4
System call = way of obtaining services of OS
    • Often implemented via TRAP instruction
memory
memory
  • RAM
  • ROM – nonvolatile
  • EEPROM or flash RAM
  • CMOS – low power, volatile RAM
    • Backed up by battery
    • Date/time storage, boot parameters
disk organization
Disk organization
  • Disks: sector, intersector gap, track, cylinder
multiple programs in ram
Multiple programs in RAM
  • Why? Better use of resource, multiple programs running, etc.
  • Needs:
    • Protect processes (and kernel) from each other
    • Handle relocation
multiple programs in ram1
Multiple programs in RAM
  • How?
    • Assume all programs start at virtual address 0
    • Use base and limit registers
    • Virtual-to-physical address translation via MMU
      • managed by OS
      • Context switch – switching from 1 program to another
i o devices
I/O devices
  • Device driver = software that talks to a controller, giving it commands and accepting responses
    • Must be loaded into kernel via one of the following:
      • Relink kernel and reboot (Unix)
      • Make an entry into system file & check & load entries at boot time (Windows)
      • Dynamically loaded drivers (USB & IEEE 1394)
slide11
Methods of communicating w/ device registers:
    • Use special IN/OUT instructions
    • Map device registers into memory (RAM)
  • Methods of performing I/O:
    • Busy waiting
    • Interrupts
    • Interrupts w/ DMA
slide12
Busy waiting
    • User  system call  driver procedure call  wait (polling)  return results & status
  • Interrupts
    • User  system call  driver procedure call w/ ISR specified
    • User waits but CPU is free to do something else
    • ISR is called only when work needs to be accomplished (and performs the work)
  • Interrupts w/ DMA
servicing interrupts
Servicing interrupts
  • I/O device has completed operation; CPU is signalled (electrically)
  • CPU may or may not decide to service interrupt right now
  • Service:
    • Push PC & PSW on stack
    • Switch to kernel mode
    • User interrupt vector (table) for service routine address
    • Restore PC & PSW and resume what was being performed
  • Remember: interrupts can occur at any (the worst) time so they can be disabled (ignored, queued, and/or prioritized)
buses
Buses

Standard electrical connectivity w/ system/CPU (ex. PCI, SCSI, USB, IEEE 1394, IDE, EIDE, ISA, ATA, SATA, AGP, cache, memory)

  • AGP 3.5 - 2.1 GB/s
  • ATA - 33 to 133 MB/s
  • FireWire IEEE 1394b - 800 MB/s
  • ISA - 16.7 MB/s (8.3 MHz)
  • PCI - 528 MB/s (66 MHz)
  • SCSI Ultra-640 - 640 MB/s
  • USB3 - 4 GB/s
boot process
Boot process
  • Execution starts w/ code in BIOS (flash RAM or ROM)
  • Determine amount of memory
  • Scans ISA & PCI for devices and checks keyboard
  • Checks CMOS for boot device
    • First sector of boot device is read into memory and executed
ad